This Stock Purchase Agreement involves
Title: SECURITIES PURCHASE AGREEMENT
Governing Law: New York Date: 3/13/2007
Industry: Biotechnology and Drugs Sector: Healthcare
SECURITIES PURCHASE AGREEMENT
This Securities Purchase Agreement (this “Agreement”) is dated as of March 8, 2007, by and among Neose Technologies, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and each purchaser identified on the signature pages hereto (each, including its successors and assigns, a “Purchaser” and collectively the “Purchasers”).
WHEREAS, subject to the terms and conditions set forth in this Agreement and pursuant to Section 4(2) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Rule 506 promulgated thereunder, the Company desires to issue and sell to each Purchaser, and each Purchaser, severally and not jointly, desires to purchase from the Company, securities of the Company as more fully described in this Agreement.
NOW, THEREFORE, IN CONSIDERATION of the mutual covenants contained in this Agreement, and for other good and valuable consideration the receipt and adequacy of which are hereby acknowledged, the Company and each Purchaser agree as follows:
1.1 Definitions. In addition to the terms defined elsewhere in this Agreement, for all purposes of this Agreement, the following terms have the meanings set forth in this Section 1.1:
“Action” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3.1(j).
“Affiliate” means any Person that, directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls or is controlled by or is under common control with a Person as such terms are used in and construed under Rule 144 under the Securities Act. With respect to a Purchaser, any investment fund or managed account that is managed on a discretionary basis by the same investment manager as such Purchaser will be deemed to be an Affiliate of such Purchaser.
“Business Day” means any day except Saturday, Sunday, any day which shall be a federal legal holiday in the United States or any day on which banking institutions in the State of New York are authorized or required by law or other governmental action to close.
“Closing” means the closing of the purchase and sale of the Securities pursuant to Section 2.1.
“Closing Date” means the Trading Day when all of the Transaction Documents have been executed and delivered by the applicable parties thereto, and all conditions precedent to (i) the Purchasers’ obligations to pay the Subscription Amount and (ii) the Company’s obligations to deliver the Securities have been satisfied or waived.
“Closing Price” means on any particular date (a) the last reported closing bid price per share of Common Stock on such date on the Trading Market (as reported by Bloomberg L.P. at 4:15 p.m. (New York City time)), or (b) if there is no such price on such date, then the closing bid price on the Trading Market on the date nearest preceding such date (as reported by Bloomberg L.P. at 4:15 p.m. (New York City time)), or (c) if the Common Stock is not then listed or quoted on the Trading Market and if prices for the Common Stock are then reported in the “pink sheets” published by Pink Sheets LLC (or a similar organization or agency succeeding to its functions of reporting prices), the most recent bid price per share of the Common Stock so reported, or (d) if the shares of Common Stock are not then publicly traded the fair market value of a share of Common Stock as determined by an independent appraiser mutually acceptable to the Company and the Purchasers of 67% of the then outstanding Securities.
“Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission.
“Common Stock” means the common stock of the Company, par value $0.01 per share, and any other class of securities into which such securities may hereafter be reclassified or changed into.
“Common Stock Equivalents” means any securities of the Company or the Subsidiaries which would entitle the holder thereof to acquire at any time Common Stock, including, without limitation, any debt, preferred stock, rights, options, warrants, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock units or other instrument that is at any time convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for, or otherwise entitles the holder thereof to receive, Common Stock.
“Company Counsel” means Pepper Hamilton LLP, with offices located at 3000 Two Logan Square, Eighteenth and Arch Streets, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103.
“Disclosure Schedules” means the Disclosure Schedules of the Company delivered concurrently herewith.
“Effective Date” means the date that the Initial Registration Statement is first declared effective by the Commission.
“Equity Incentive Plan” means (i) any equity incentive, stock option or similar plan and (ii) any other agreement, arrangement, understanding or other document pursuant to which the Company is obligated to grant or issue Common Stock or Common Stock Equivalents to current or former employees in connection with their services to the Company which is included as an exhibit to any of the SEC Reports, in each case adopted or approved by a majority of the non-employee members of the board of directors of the Company or a majority of the members of a committee of non-employee directors established.
“Evaluation Date” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3.1(r).
“Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.
“Exempt Issuance” means the issuance of (a) shares of Common Stock or Common Stock Equivalents to employees, officers or directors of the Company pursuant to any Equity Incentive Plan, (b) securities upon the exercise or exchange of or conversion of (i) any Securities issued hereunder, (ii) Common Stock Equivalents issued pursuant to an Equity Incentive Plan or (iii) other Common Stock Equivalents issued and outstanding on the date of this Agreement, provided that such securities have not been amended since the date of this Agreement to increase the number of such securities or to decrease the exercise, exchange or conversion price of such securities, and (c) securities issued pursuant to acquisitions or strategic transactions approved by a majority of the disinterested directors of the Company, provided that any such issuance shall only be to a Person which is, itself or through its subsidiaries, an operating company in a business synergistic with the business of the Company and in which the Company receives benefits in addition to the investment of funds, but shall not include a transaction in which the Company is issuing securities primarily for the purpose of raising capital or to an entity whose primary business is investing in securities.
“FPO” means the UK’s Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (Financial Promotion) Order 2005.
“FSMA” means the UK’s Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (as amended).
“FWS” means Feldman Weinstein & Smith LLP with offices located at 420 Lexington Avenue, Suite 2620, New York, New York 10170-0002.
“GAAP” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3.1(h).
“GSPA” means the German Securities Prospectus Act ( Wertpapierprospektgesetz ) of June 22, 2005, as amended.
“Indebtedness” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3.1(aa).
“Initial Registration Statement” means the initial Registration Statement filed by the Company pursuant to the Registration Rights Agreement.
“Intellectual Property Rights” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3.1(o).
“Legend Removal Date” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 4.1(c).
“Liens” means a lien, charge, security interest, encumbrance, right of first refusal, preemptive right or other restriction.
“Material Adverse Effect” shall have the meaning assigned to such term in Section 3.1(b).
“Material Permits” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3.1(m).
“Per Unit Purchase Price” equals $2.02, being the sum of (a) the Closing Price immediately prior to the execution hereof, subject to adjustment for reverse and forward stock splits, stock dividends, stock combinations and other similar transactions of the Common Stock that occur after the date of this Agreement and (b) $0.05625.
“Person” means an individual or corporation, partnership, trust, incorporated or unincorporated association, joint venture, limited liability company, joint stock company, government (or an agency or subdivision thereof) or other entity of any kind.
“Placement Agent” means Rodman & Renshaw, LLC.
“Proceeding” means an action, claim, suit, investigation or proceeding (including, without limitation, an investigation or partial proceeding, such as a deposition), whether commenced or threatened.
“Purchaser Party” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 4.9.
“Registration Rights Agreement” means the Registration Rights Agreement, dated the date hereof, among the Company and the Purchasers, in the form of Exhibit A attached hereto.
“Registration Statement” means a registration statement meeting the requirements set forth in the Registration Rights Agreement and covering the resale by the Purchasers of all or part of the Shares and the Warrant Shares.
“Regulation S” means Rules 901 through 905 (including the preliminary notes) promulgated by the Commission pursuant to the Securities Act, as such rules may be amended from time to time, or any similar rule or regulation hereafter adopted by the Commission having substantially the same effect as such rules.
“Required Approvals” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3.1(e).
“Rights Plan” means the Amended and Restated Rights Agreement by and between the Company and the Transfer Agent dated December 3, 1998, as amended.
“Rule 144” means Rule 144 promulgated by the Commission pursuant to the Securities Act, as such rule may be amended from time to time, or any similar rule or regulation hereafter adopted by the Commission having substantially the same effect as such rule.
“SEC Reports” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3.1(h).
“Securities” means the Shares, the Warrants and the Warrant Shares.
“Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.
“Shares” means the shares of Common Stock issued or issuable to each Purchaser pursuant to this Agreement.
“Short Sales” means all “short sales” as defined in Rule 200 of Regulation SHO under the Exchange Act (but shall not be deemed to include the location and/or reservation of borrowable shares of Common Stock).
“Subscription Amount” means, as to each Purchaser, the aggregate amount to be paid for Shares and Warrants purchased hereunder as specified below such Purchaser’s name on the signature page of this Agreement and next to the heading “Subscription Amount,” in United States dollars and in immediately available funds.
“Subsequent Financing” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 4.13.
“Subsequent Financing Notice” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 4.13.
“Subsidiary” means any subsidiary of the Company as set forth on Schedule 3.1(a).
“Trading Day” means a day on which the Common Stock is traded on a Trading Market.
“Trading Market” means the following markets or exchanges on which the Common Stock is listed or quoted for trading on the date in question: the American Stock Exchange, the Nasdaq Capital Market, the Nasdaq Global Market, the Nasdaq Global Select Market or the New York Stock Exchange.
“Transaction Documents” means this Agreement, the Warrants, the Registration Rights Agreement and any other documents or agreements executed in connection with the transactions contemplated hereunder.
“Transfer Agent” means American Stock Trust & Transfer Company, with a mailing address of 59 Maiden Lane, Plaza Level, New York, New York 10038 and a facsimile number of (718) 921-8334, and any successor transfer agent of the Company.
“UK” means the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
“Unit” means one Share and 45/100 of a Warrant to purchase one share of Common Stock.
“U.S.” means the United States of America.
“VWAP” means, for any date, the price determined by the first of the following clauses that applies: (a) if the Common Stock is then listed or quoted on a Trading Market, the daily volume weighted average price of the Common Stock for such date (or the nearest preceding date) on the Trading Market on which the Common Stock is then listed or quoted for trading as reported by Bloomberg L.P. (based on a Trading Day from 9:30 a.m. (New York City time) to 4:02 p.m. (New York City time)); (b) if the OTC Bulletin Board is not a Trading Market, the volume weighted average price of the Common Stock for such date (or the nearest preceding date) on the OTC Bulletin Board; (c) if the Common Stock is not then quoted for trading on the OTC Bulletin Board and if prices for the Common Stock are then reported in the “Pink Sheets” published by Pink Sheets, LLC (or a similar organization or agency succeeding to its functions of reporting prices), the most recent bid price per share of the Common Stock so reported; or (d) in all other cases, the fair market value of a share of Common Stock as determined by an independent appraiser selected in good faith by the Purchaser and reasonably acceptable to the Company, the fees and expenses of which shall be paid by the Company.
“Warrants” means collectively the Common Stock purchase warrants delivered to the Purchasers at the Closing in accordance with Section 2.2(a) hereof, which Warrants shall be exercisable immediately and have a term of exercise equal to 5 years, in the form of Exhibit C attached hereto.
“Warrant Shares” means the shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise of the Warrants.
PURCHASE AND SALE
2.1 Closing. On the Closing Date, upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein, substantially concurrent with the execution and delivery of this Agreement by the parties hereto, the Company agrees to sell, and each Purchaser, severally and not jointly, agrees to purchase, at the Per Unit Purchase Price up to an aggregate of $48,000,000 of Units. Each Purchaser shall deliver to the Company, via wire transfer, immediately available funds equal to its Subscription Amount and the Company shall deliver to each Purchaser its respective Shares and a Warrant as determined pursuant to Section 2.2(a), and the Company and each Purchaser shall deliver the other items set forth in Section 2.2 deliverable at the Closing. Upon satisfaction of the conditions set forth in Sections 2.2 and 2.3, the Closing shall occur at the offices of FWS or such other location as the parties shall mutually agree.
(a) On or prior to the Closing Date, the Company shall deliver or cause to be delivered to each Purchaser the following:
(i) this Agreement duly executed by the Company;
(ii) a legal opinion of Company Counsel, in the form of Exhibit B attached hereto;
(iii) a copy of the irrevocable instructions to the Transfer Agent instructing the Transfer Agent to deliver, on an expedited basis, a certificate evidencing the number of Shares contained in such Purchaser’s Units, registered in the name of such Purchaser;
(iv) a Warrant registered in the name of such Purchaser to purchase up to a number of Warrant Shares contained in such Purchaser’s Units (rounded down to the nearest whole number of Warrant Shares), with an exercise price equal to the Closing Price immediately prior to the execution hereof, subject to adjustment therein; and
(v) the Registration Rights Agreement duly executed by the Company.
(b) On or prior to the Closing Date, each Purchaser shall deliver or cause to be delivered to the Company the following:
(i) this Agreement duly executed by such Purchaser;
(ii) such Purchaser’s Subscription Amount by wire transfer to the account as specified in writing by the Company; and
(iii) the Registration Rights Agreement duly executed by such Purchaser.
2.3 Closing Conditions.
(a) The obligations of the Company hereunder in connection with the Closing are subject to the following conditions being met:
(i) the accuracy in all material respects when made and on the Closing Date of the representations and warranties of the Purchasers contained herein;
(ii) all obligations, covenants and agreements of the Purchasers required to be performed at or prior to the Closing Date shall have been performed; and
(iii) the delivery by the Purchasers of the items set forth in Section 2.2(b) of this Agreement.
(b) The respective obligations of each Purchaser hereunder in connection with the Closing are subject to the following conditions being met:
(i) the accuracy in all material respects when made and on the Closing Date of the representations and warranties of the Company contained herein;
(ii) all obligations, covenants and agreements of the Company required to be performed at or prior to the Closing Date shall have been performed;
(iii) the delivery by the Company of the items set forth in Section 2.2(a) of this Agreement;
(iv) there shall have been no Material Adverse Effect with respect to the Company since the date hereof;
(v) the Company receives funds to purchase an aggregate of at least $25,000,000 of Units on the Closing Date; and
(vi) from the date hereof to the Closing Date, trading in the Common Stock shall not have been suspended by the Commission or the Company’s principal Trading Market (except for any suspension of trading of limited duration agreed to by the Company, which suspension shall be terminated prior to the Closing), and, at any time prior to the Closing Date, trading in securities generally as reported by Bloomberg L.P. shall not have been suspended or limited, or minimum prices shall not have been established on securities whose trades are reported by such service, or on any Trading Market, nor shall a banking moratorium have been declared either by the United States or New York State authorities nor shall there have occurred any material outbreak or escalation of hostilities or other national or international calamity of such magnitude in its effect on, or any material adverse change in, any financial market which, in each case, in the reasonable judgment of each Purchaser, makes it impracticable or inadvisable to purchase the Shares at the Closing.
REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES
3.1 Representations and Warranties of the Company. Except as set forth in the Disclosure Schedules, which Disclosure Schedules shall be deemed a part hereof and shall qualify any representation or otherwise made herein to the extent of the disclosure contained in the corresponding section of the Disclosure Schedules, the Company hereby makes the following representations and warranties to each Purchaser:
(a) Subsidiaries. All of the direct and indirect subsidiaries of the Company are set forth on Schedule 3.1(a). The Company owns, directly or indirectly, all of the capital stock or other equity interests of each Subsidiary free and clear of any Liens, and all of the issued and outstanding shares of capital stock of each Subsidiary are validly issued and are fully paid, non-assessable and free of preemptive and similar rights to subscribe for or purchase securities. If the Company has no subsidiaries, then all other references to the Subsidiaries or any of them in the Transaction Documents shall be disregarded.
(b) Organization and Qualification. The Company and each of the Subsidiaries is an entity duly incorporated or otherwise organized, validly existing and in good standing under the laws of the jurisdiction of its incorporation or organization (as applicable), with the requisite power and authority to own and use its properties and assets and to carry on its business as currently conducted. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary is in violation or default of any of the provisions of its respective certificate or articles of incorporation, bylaws or other organizational or charter documents. Each of the Company and the Subsidiaries is duly qualified to conduct business and is in good standing as a foreign corporation or other entity in each jurisdiction in which the nature of the business conducted or property owned by it makes such qualification necessary, except where the failure to be so qualified or in good standing, as the case may be, would not have or reasonably be expected to result in (i) a material adverse effect on the legality, validity or enforceability of any Transaction Document, (ii) a material adverse effect on the results of operations, assets, business, prospects or condition (financial or otherwise) of the Company and the Subsidiaries, taken as a whole, or (iii) a material adverse effect on the Company’s ability to perform in any material respect on a timely basis its obligations under any Transaction Document (any of (i), (ii) or (iii), a “Material Adverse Effect”) and no Proceeding has been instituted in any such jurisdiction revoking, limiting or curtailing or seeking to revoke, limit or curtail such power and authority or qualification.
(c) Authorization; Enforcement. The Company has the requisite corporate power and authority to enter into and to consummate the transactions contemplated by each of the Transaction Documents and otherwise to carry out its obligations hereunder and thereunder. The execution and delivery of each of the Transaction Documents by the Company and the consummation by it of the transactions contemplated hereby and thereby have been duly authorized by all necessary action on the part of the Company and no further action is required by the Company, its board of directors or its stockholders in connection therewith other than in connection with the Required Approvals. Each Transaction Document has been (or upon delivery will have been) duly executed by the Company and, when delivered in accordance with the terms hereof and thereof, will constitute the valid and binding obligation of the Company enforceable against the Company in accordance with its terms except (i) as limited by general equitable principles and applicable bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium and other laws of general application affecting enforcement of creditors’ rights generally, (ii) as limited by laws relating to the availability of specific performance, injunctive relief or other equitable remedies and (iii) insofar as indemnification and contribution provisions may be limited by applicable law.
(d) No Conflicts. The execution, delivery and performance of the Transaction Documents by the Company, the issuance and sale of the Shares and the consummation by the Company of the other transactions contemplated hereby and thereby do not and will not (i) conflict with or violate any provision of the Company’s or any Subsidiary’s certificate or articles of incorporation, bylaws or other organizational or charter documents, or (ii) conflict with, or constitute a default (or an event that with notice or lapse of time or both would become a default) under, result in the creation of any Lien upon any of the properties or assets of the Company or any Subsidiary, or give to others any rights of termination, amendment, acceleration or cancellation (with or without notice, lapse of time or both) of, any agreement, credit facility, debt or other instrument (evidencing a Company or Subsidiary debt or otherwise) or other understanding to which the Company or any Subsidiary is a party or by which any property or asset of the Company or any Subsidiary is bound or affected, or (iii) subject to the Required Approvals, conflict with or result in a violation of any law, rule, regulation, order, judgment, injunction, decree or other restriction of any court or governmental authority to which the Company or a Subsidiary is subject (including federal and state securities laws and regulations), or by which any property or asset of the Company or a Subsidiary is bound or affected; except in the case of each of clauses (ii) and (iii), such as would not have or reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.
(e) Filings, Consents and Approvals. The Company is not required to obtain any consent, waiver, authorization or order of, give any notice to, or make any filing or registration with, any court or other federal, state, local or other governmental authority or other Person in connection with the execution, delivery and performance by the Company of the Transaction Documents, other than (i) filings required pursuant to Section 4.4 of this Agreement, (ii) the filing with, and the declaration of effectiveness by, the Commission of the Registration Statement, (iii) application(s) and notification(s) to each applicable Trading Market for the listing of the Securities for trading thereon in the time and manner required thereby, and (iv) the filing of Form D with the Commission and such filings as are required to be made under applicable state securities laws (collectively, the “Required Approvals”).
(f) Issuance of the Securities. The Securities are duly authorized and, when issued and paid for in accordance with the applicable Transaction Documents, will be duly and validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable, free and clear of all Liens imposed by the Company other than restrictions on transfer provided for in the Transaction Documents. The Warrant Shares, when issued in accordance with the terms of the Transaction Documents, will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable, free and clear of all Liens imposed by the Company other than restrictions on transfer provided for in the Transaction Documents. The Company has reserved from its duly authorized capital stock the maximum number of shares of Common Stock issuable pursuant to this Agreement and the Warrants.
(g) Capitalization. The capitalization of the Company is as set forth on Schedule 3.1(g), which Schedule 3.1(g) shall also include the number of shares of Common Stock owned beneficially, and of record, by Affiliates of the Company as of the date hereof. The Company has not issued any capital stock since its most recently filed periodic report under the Exchange Act, other than pursuant to the conversion or exercise of Common Stock Equivalents outstanding as of the date of the most recently filed periodic report under the Exchange Act. No Person has any right of first refusal, preemptive right, right of participation, or any similar right to participate in the transactions contemplated by the Transaction Documents. Except as set forth on Schedule 3.1(g) or as a result of the purchase and sale of the Securities, there are no outstanding options, warrants, scrip rights to subscribe to, calls or commitments of any character whatsoever relating to, or securities, rights or obligations convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for, or giving any Person any right to subscribe for or acquire, any shares of Common Stock, or contracts, commitments, understandings or arrangements by which the Company or any Subsidiary is or may become bound to issue additional shares of Common Stock or Common Stock Equivalents. The issuance and sale of the Securities will not obligate the Company to issue shares of Common Stock or other securities to any Person (other than the Purchasers) and will not result in a right of any holder of Company securities to adjust the exercise, conversion, exchange or reset price under any of such securities. All of the outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company are validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable, have been issued in compliance with all federal and state securities laws, and none of such outstanding shares was issued in violation of any preemptive rights or similar rights to subscribe for or purchase securities. Except for the Required Approvals, no further approval or authorization of any stockholder, the Board of Directors of the Company or others is required for the issuance and sale of the Securities. There are no stockholders agreements, voting agreements or other similar agreements with respect to the Company’s capital stock to which the Company is a party or, to the knowledge of the Company, between or among any of the Company’s stockholders.
(h) SEC Reports; Financial Statements. The Company has filed all reports, schedules, forms, statements and other documents required to be filed by the Company under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, including pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) thereof, for the two years preceding the date hereof (or such shorter period as the Company was required by law or regulation to file such material) (the foregoing materials, including the exhibits thereto and documents incorporated by reference therein, being collectively referred to herein as the “SEC Reports”) on a timely basis or has received a valid extension of such time of filing and has filed any such SEC Reports prior to the expiration of any such extension. As of their respective dates, the SEC Reports complied in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, as applicable, and none of the SEC Reports, when filed, contained any untrue statement of a material fact or omitted to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The financial statements of the Company included in the SEC Reports comply in all material respects with applicable accounting requirements and the rules and regulations of the Commission with respect thereto as in effect at the time of filing. Such financial statements have been prepared in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles applied on a consistent basis during the periods involved (“GAAP”), except as may be otherwise specified in such financial statements or the notes thereto and except that unaudited financial statements may not contain all footnotes required by GAAP, and fairly present in all material respects the financial position of the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries as of and for the dates thereof and the results of operations and cash flows for the periods then ended, subject, in the case of unaudited statements, to normal, immaterial, year-end audit adjustments.
(i) Material Changes; Undisclosed Events, Liabilities or Developments. Except as set forth on Schedule 3.1(i), since the date of the latest audited financial statements included within the SEC Reports, except as specifically disclosed in a subsequent SEC Report filed prior to the date hereof, (i) there has been no event, occurrence or development that has had or that could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, (ii) the Company has not incurred any liabilities (contingent or otherwise) other than (A) trade payables and accrued expenses incurred in the ordinary course of business consistent with past practice and (B) liabilities not required to be reflected in the Company’s financial statements pursuant to GAAP or disclosed in filings made with the Commission, (iii) the Company has not altered its method of accounting, (iv) the Company has not declared or made any dividend or distribution of cash or other property to its stockholders or purchased, redeemed or made any agreements to purchase or redeem any shares of its capital stock and (v) the Company has not issued any equity securities to any executive officer, director or Affiliate, except pursuant to the Equity Incentive Plan. The Company does not have pending before the Commission any request for confidential treatment of information. Except for the issuance of the Securities contemplated by this Agreement or as set forth on Schedule 3.1(i), no event, liability or development has occurred or exists with respect to the Company or its Subsidiaries or their respective business, properties, operations or financial condition, that would be required to be disclosed by the Company under applicable securities laws at the time this representation is made that has not been publicly disclosed at least 1 Trading Day prior to the date that this representation is made.
(j) Litigation. There is no action, suit, inquiry, notice of violation, proceeding or investigation pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened against or affecting the Company, any Subsidiary or any of their respective properties before or by any court, arbitrator, governmental or administrative agency or regulatory authority (federal, state, county, local or foreign) (collectively, an “Action”) which (i) adversely affects or challenges the legality, validity or enforceability of any of the Transaction Documents or the Securities or (ii) could, if there were an unfavorable decision, have or reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary, nor any director or executive officer thereof, is or has been the subject of any Action involving a claim of violation of or liability under federal or state securities laws or a claim of breach of fiduciary duty. There has not been, and to the knowledge of the Company, there is not pending or contemplated, any investigation by the Commission involving the Company or any current or former director or executive officer of the Company. The Commission has not issued any stop order or other order suspending the effectiveness of any registration statement filed by the Company or any Subsidiary under the Exchange Act or the Securities Act.
(k) Labor Relations. No material labor dispute exists or, to the knowledge of the Company, is imminent with respect to any of the employees of the Company which could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect. None of the Company’s or its Subsidiaries’ employees is a member of a union that relates to such employee’s relationship with the Company, and neither the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is a party to a collective bargaining agreement, and the Company and its Subsidiaries believe that their relationships with their employees are good. No executive officer, to the knowledge of the Company, is, or is now expected to be, in violation of any material term of any employment contract, confidentiality, disclosure or proprietary information agreement or non-competition agreement, or any other contract or agreement or any restrictive covenant, and the continued employment of each such executive officer does not subject the Company or any of its Subsidiaries to any liability with respect to any of the foregoing matters. The Company and its Subsidiaries are in compliance with all U.S. federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations relating to employment and employment practices, terms and conditions of employment and wages and hours, except where the failure to be in compliance could not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.
(l) Compliance. Except as set forth on Schedule 3.1(l), neither the Company nor any Subsidiary (i) is in default under or in violation of (and no event has occurred that has not been waived that, with notice or lapse of time or both, would result in a default by the Company or any Subsidiary under), nor has the Company or any Subsidiary received notice of a claim that it is in default under or that it is in violation of, any indenture, loan or credit agreement or any other agreement or instrument to which it is a party or by which it or any of its properties is bound (whether or not such default or violation has been waived), (ii) is in violation of any order of any court, arbitrator or governmental body, or (iii) is or has been in violation of any statute, rule or regulation of any governmental authority, including without limitation all foreign, federal, state and local laws applicable to its business and all such laws that affect the environment, except in each case as would not have or reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.
(m) Regulatory Permits. The Company and the Subsidiaries possess all certificates, authorizations and permits issued by the appropriate federal, state, local or foreign regulatory authorities necessary to conduct their respective businesses as described in the SEC Reports, except where the failure to possess such permits could not have or reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect (“Material Permits”), and neither the Company nor any Subsidiary has received any notice of proceedings relating to the revocation or modification of any Material Permit.
(n) Title to Assets. The Company and the Subsidiaries have good and marketable title in all personal property owned by them that is material to the business of the Company and the Subsidiaries, in each case free and clear of all Liens, except for Liens (i) securing payment under the obligations set forth on Schedule 3.1(n), (ii) that do not materially affect the value of such property and (iii) that do not materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company and the Subsidiaries and Liens for the payment of federal, state or other taxes, the payment of which is neither delinquent nor subject to penalties. Any real property and facilities held under lease by the Company and the Subsidiaries are held by them under valid, subsisting and enforceable leases with which the Company and the Subsidiaries are in compliance in all material respects. The Company does not own any real property.
(o) Patents and Trademarks. The Company and the Subsidiaries have, or have rights to use, all patents, patent applications, trademarks, trademark applications, service marks, trade names, trade secrets, inventions, copyrights, licenses and other intellectual property rights and similar rights necessary or material for use in connection with their respective businesses as described in the SEC Reports and which the failure to so would not have or reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect (collectively, the “Intellectual Property Rights”). To the Company’s knowledge, the conduct of the Company’s and any Subsidiary’s businesses will not conflict in any material respects with any Intellectual Property Rights of others. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary has received a notice (written or otherwise) that the Intellectual Property Rights used by the Company or any Subsidiary violates or infringes upon the rights of any Person. To the knowledge of the Company, all such Intellectual Property Rights are enforceable and valid and there is no existing infringement by another Person of any of the Intellectual Property Rights. The Company and its Subsidiaries have taken reasonable security measures to protect the secrecy, confidentiality and value of all of their intellectual properties, except where failure to do so could not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.
(p) Insurance. The Company and the Subsidiaries are insured by insurers of recognized financial responsibility against such losses and risks and in such amounts as are customary in the businesses in which the Company and the Subsidiaries are engaged. Except as set forth on Schedule 3.1(p), the Company carries directors and officers insurance coverage at least equal to the aggregate Subscription Amount. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary has any reason to believe that it will not be able to renew its existing insurance coverage as and when such coverage expires or to obtain similar coverage from similar insurers as may be necessary to continue its business without a significant increase in cost.
(q) Transactions With Affiliates and Employees. Except as set forth in the SEC Reports, none of the executive officers or directors of the Company and, to the knowledge of the Company, none of the employees of the Company is presently a party to any transaction with the Company or any Subsidiary (other than for services as employees, executive officers and directors), including any contract, agreement or other arrangement providing for the furnishing of services to or by, providing for rental of real or personal property to or from, or otherwise requiring payments to or from any executive officer, director or such employee or, to the knowledge of the Company, any entity in which any officer, director, or any such employee has a substantial interest or is an officer, director, trustee or partner, in each case in excess of $120,000 other than for (i) payment of salary or consulting fees for services rendered, (ii) reimbursement for expenses incurred on behalf of the Company and (iii) other employee benefits, including stock option agreements and restricted stock unit agreements under any Equity Incentive Plan.
(r) Sarbanes-Oxley; Internal Accounting Controls. The Company is in material compliance with all provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 which are applicable to it as of the Closing Date. The Company and the Subsidiaries maintain a system of internal accounting controls sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorizations, (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP and to maintain asset accountability, (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization, and (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with the existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences. The Company has established disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e)) for the Company and designed such disclosure controls and procedures to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in the reports it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported, within the time periods specified in the Commission’s rules and forms. The Company’s certifying officers have evaluated the effectiveness of the Company’s disclosure controls and procedures as of the end of the period covered by the Company’s most recently filed periodic report under the Exchange Act (such date, the “Evaluation Date”). The Company presented in its most recently filed periodic report under the Exchange Act the conclusions of the certifying officers about the effectiveness of the disclosure controls and procedures based on their evaluations as of the Evaluation Date. Since the Evaluation Date, there have been no changes in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting (as such term is defined in the Exchange Act) that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.
(s) Certain Fees. Except as set forth on Schedule 3.1(s), no brokerage or finder’s fees or commissions are or will be payable by the Company to any broker, financial advisor or consultant, finder, placement agent, investment banker, bank or other Person with respect to the transactions contemplated by the Transaction Documents. The Purchasers shall have no obligation with respect to any fees or with respect to any claims made by or on behalf of other Persons for fees of a type contemplated in this Section that may be due in connection with the transactions contemplated by the Transaction Documents.
(t) Private Placement. Assuming the accuracy of the Purchasers representations and warranties set forth in Section 3.2, no registration under the Securities Act is required for the offer and sale of the Securities by the Company to the Purchasers as contemplated hereby. The issuance and sale of the Securities hereunder does not contravene the rules and regulations of the Trading Market.
(u) Investment Company. The Company is not, and is not an Affiliate of, and immediately after receipt of payment for the Securities, will not be or be an Affiliate of, an “investment company” within the meaning of the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended.
(v) Registration Rights. Except as set forth in Schedule 3.1(v) and other than each of the Purchasers, no Person has any right to cause the Company to effect the registration under the Securities Act of any securities of the Company.
(w) Listing and Maintenance Requirements. The Company’s Common Stock is registered pursuant to Section 12(b) or 12(g) of the Exchange Act, and the Company has taken no action designed to, or which to its knowledge is likely to have the effect of, terminating the registration of the Common Stock under the Exchange Act nor has the Company received any notification that the Commission is contemplating terminating such registration. The Company has not, in the 12 months preceding the date hereof, received notice from any Trading Market on which the Common Stock is or has been listed or quoted to the effect that the Company is not in compliance with the listing or maintenance requirements of such Trading Market. The Company is, and has no reason to believe that it will not in the foreseeable future continue to be, in compliance with all such listing and maintenance requirements.
(x) Application of Takeover Protections. Except for the continued existence of the Rights Plan, the Company and its board of directors have taken all necessary action, if any, in order to render inapplicable any control share acquisition, business combination, poison pill (including any distribution under a rights agreement) or other similar anti-takeover provision under the Company’s certificate of incorporation (or similar charter documents) or the laws of its state of incorporation that is or could become applicable to the Purchasers as a result of the Purchasers and the Company fulfilling their obligations or exercising their rights under the Transaction Documents, including without limitation as a result of the Company’s issuance of the Securities and the Purchasers’ ownership of the Securities.
(y) Disclosure. Except with regard to the Purchasers set forth on Schedule 3.1(y) and except respect to the material terms and conditions of the transactions contemplated by the Transaction Documents, the Company confirms that neither it nor any other Person acting on its behalf has provided any of the Purchasers or their agents or counsel with any information that it believes constitutes or might constitute material, non-public information. The Company understands and confirms that the Purchasers will rely on the foregoing representation in effecting transactions in securities of the Company. All disclosure furnished by or on behalf of the Company to the Purchasers regarding the Company, its business and the transactions contemplated hereby, including the Disclosure Schedules to this Agreement, is true and correct and does not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact necessary in order to make the statements made therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The press releases disseminated by the Company during the twelve months preceding the date of this Agreement taken as a whole do not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements, in light of the circumstances under which they were made and when made, not misleading. The Company acknowledges and agrees that no Purchaser makes or has made any representations or warranties with respect to the transactions contemplated hereby other than those specifically set forth in Section 3.2 hereof.
(z) No Integrated Offering. Assuming the accuracy of the Purchasers’ representations and warranties set forth in Section 3.2, neither the Company, nor any of its Affiliates, nor any Person acting on its or their behalf has, directly or indirectly, made any offers or sales of any security or solicited any offers to buy any security, under circumstances that would cause this offering of the Securities to be integrated or aggregated with prior offerings by the Company for purposes of the Securities Act or any applicable shareholder approval provisions of any Trading Market on which any of the securities of the Company are listed or designated.
(aa) Solvency. Based on the financial condition of the Company as of the Closing Date, after giving effect to the receipt by the Company of the proceeds from the sale of the Securities hereunder, (i) the Company reasonably expects to have sufficient cash on hand to pay all of its currently foreseeable expenses for at least the next 12 months, (ii) the fair saleable value of the Company’s assets exceeds the amount that will be required to be paid on or in respect of the Company’s existing debts and other liabilities (including known contingent liabilities) as they mature; (iii) the Company’s assets do not constitute unreasonably small capital to carry on its business as now conducted and as proposed to be conducted including its capital needs taking into account the particular capital requirements of the business conducted by the Company, and projected capital requirements and capital availability thereof; and (iv) the current cash flow of the Company, together with the proceeds the Company would receive, were it to liquidate all of its assets, after taking into account all anticipated uses of the cash, would be sufficient to pay all amounts on or in respect of its liabilities when such amounts are required to be paid. The Company does not intend to incur debts beyond its ability to pay such debts as they mature (taking into account the timing and amounts of cash to be payable on or in respect of its debt). The Company has no knowledge of any facts or circumstances which lead it to believe that it will file for reorganization or liquidation under the bankruptcy or reorganization laws of any jurisdiction within one year from the Closing Date. Schedule 3.1(aa) sets forth as of the dates thereof all outstanding secured and unsecured Indebtedness of the Company or any Subsidiary, or for which the Company or any Subsidiary has commitments. For the purposes of this Agreement, “Indebtedness” means (a) any liabilities for borrowed money or amounts owed in excess of $50,000 (other than trade accounts payable incurred in the ordinary course of business), (b) all guaranties, endorsements and other contingent obligations in respect of Indebtedness of others, whether or not the same are or should be reflected in the Company’s balance sheet (or the notes thereto), except guaranties by endorsement of negotiable instruments for deposit or collection or similar transactions in the ordinary course of business; and (c) the present value of any lease payments in excess of $50,000 due under leases required to be capitalized in accordance with GAAP. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary is in default with respect to any Indebtedness.
(bb) Tax Status. Except for matters that would not, individually or in the aggregate, have or reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, the Company and each Subsidiary has filed all necessary federal, state and foreign income and franchise tax returns and has paid or accrued all taxes shown as due thereon, and the Company has no knowledge of a tax deficiency which has been asserted or threatened against the Company or any Subsidiary.
(cc) No General Solicitation. Neither the Company nor any person acting on behalf of the Company has offered or sold any of the Securities by any form of general solicitation or general advertising. The Company has offered the Securities for sale only to the Purchasers and certain other “accredited investors” within the meaning of Rule 501 under the Securities Act.
(dd) Foreign Corrupt Practices. Neither the Company, nor to the knowledge of the Company, any agent or other person acting on behalf of the Company, has (i) directly or indirectly, used any funds for unlawful contributions, gifts, entertainment or other unlawful expenses related to foreign or domestic political activity, (ii) made any unlawful payment to foreign or domestic government officials or employees or to any foreign or domestic political parties or campaigns from corporate funds, (iii) failed to disclose fully any contribution made by the Company (or made by any person acting on its behalf of which the Company is aware) which is in violation of law, or (iv) violated in any material respect any provision of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended.
(ee) Accountants. The Company’s accounting firm is set forth on Schedule 3.1(ee) of the Disclosure Schedule. To the knowledge of the Company, such accounting firm (i) is a registered public accounting firm as required by the Exchange Act and (ii) shall express its opinion with respect to the financial statements to be included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ending December 31, 2006.
(ff) No Disagreements with Accountants and Lawyers. There are no disagreements of any kind presently existing, or reasonably anticipated by the Company to arise, between the Company and the accountants and lawyers formerly or presently employed by the Company and the Company is current with respect to any fees owed to its accountants and lawyers.
(gg) Acknowledgment Regarding Purchasers’ Purchase of Securities. The Company acknowledges and agrees that, except as set forth on Schedule 3.1(gg), each of the Purchasers is acting solely in the capacity of an arm’s length purchaser with respect to the Transaction Documents and the transactions contemplated thereby. The Company further acknowledges that no Purchaser is acting as a financial advisor or fiduciary of the Company (or in any similar capacity) with respect to the Transaction Documents and the transactions contemplated thereby and any advice given by any Purchaser or any of their respective representatives or agents in connection with the Transaction Documents and the transactions contemplated thereby is merely incidental to the Purchasers’ purchase of the Securities. The Company further represents to each Purchaser that the Company’s decision to enter into this Agreement and the other Transaction Documents has been based solely on the independent evaluation of the transactions contemplated hereby by the Company and its representatives.
(hh) Acknowledgement Regarding Purchaser’s Trading Activity. Anything in this Agreement or elsewhere herein to the contrary notwithstanding (except for Sections 3.2(f) and 4.15 hereof), it is understood and acknowledged by the Company (i) that none of the Purchasers have been asked to agree, nor has any Purchaser agreed, to desist from purchasing or selling, long and/or short, securities of the Company, or “derivative” securities based on securities issued by the Company or to hold the Securities for any specified term; (ii) that past or future open market or other transactions by any Purchaser, including Short Sales, and specifically including, without limitation, Short Sales or “derivative” transactions, before or after the closing of this or future private placement transactions, may negatively impact the market price of the Company’s publicly-traded securities; (iii) that any Purchaser, and counter-parties in “derivative” transactions to which any such Purchaser is a party, directly or indirectly, presently may have a “short” position in the Common Stock, and (iv) that each Purchaser shall not be deemed to have any affiliation with or control over any arm’s length counter-party in any “derivative” transaction. The Company further understands and acknowledges that (a) one or more Purchasers may engage in hedging activities at various times during the period that the Securities are outstanding, including, without limitation, during the periods that the value of the Warrant Shares deliverable with respect to Securities are being determined and (b) such hedging activities (if any) could reduce the value of the existing stockholders’ equity interests in the Company at and after the time that the hedging activities are being conducted. The Company acknowledges that such aforementioned hedging activities do not constitute a breach of any of the Transaction Documents.
(ii) Regulation M Compliance. The Company has not, and to its knowledge no one acting on its behalf has, (i) taken, directly or indirectly, any action designed to cause or to result in the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of any of the Securities, (ii) sold, bid for, purchased, or, paid any compensation for soliciting purchases of, any of the Securities, or (iii) paid or agreed to pay to any Person any compensation for soliciting another to purchase any other securities of the Company, other than, in the case of clauses (ii) and (iii), compensation paid to the Placement Agent in connection with the placement of the Securities.
(jj) FDA. As to each product subject to the jurisdiction of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, as amended, and the regulations thereunder (“FDCA”) that is manufactured, packaged, labeled, tested, distributed, sold, and/or marketed by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries (each such product, a “Pharmaceutical Product”), such Pharmaceutical Product is being manufactured, packaged, labeled, tested, distributed, sold and/or marketed by the Company in compliance with all applicable requirements under FDCA and other federal or state laws, rules and regulations relating to registration, investigational use, premarket clearance, licensure, or application approval, good manufacturing practices, good laboratory practices, good clinical practices, product listing, quotas, labeling, advertising, record keeping and filing of reports, except where the failure to be in compliance would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. Except as set forth on Schedule 3.1(jj), there is no pending, completed or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened, action (including any lawsuit, arbitration, or legal or administrative or regulatory proceeding, charge, complaint, or investigation) against the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, and none of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries has received any notice, warning letter or other communication from the FDA or any other governmental entity, which (i) contests the premarket clearance, licensure, registration, or approval of, the uses of, the distribution of, the manufacturing or packaging of, the testing of, the sale of, or the labeling and promotion of any Pharmaceutical Product, (ii) withdraws its approval of, requests the recall, suspension, or seizure of, or withdraws or orders the withdrawal of advertising or sales promotional materials relating to, any Pharmaceutical Product, (iii) imposes a clinical hold on any clinical investigation by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, (iv) enjoins production at any facility of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, (v) enters or proposes to enter into a consent decree of permanent injunction with the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, or (vi) otherwise alleges any violation of any laws, rules or regulations by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, and which, either individually or in the aggregate, would have or reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. The properties, business and operations of the Company have been and are being conducted in all material respects in accordance with all applicable laws, rules and regulations of the FDA. The Company has not been informed by the FDA that the FDA will prohibit the marketing, sale, license or use in the United States of any product proposed to be developed, produced or marketed by the Company nor has the FDA expressed any concern as to approving or clearing for marketing any product being developed or proposed to be developed by the Company.
(kk) Form S-3 Eligibility. The Company is eligible to register the resale of its Common Stock on Form S-3 promulgated under the Securities Act.
(ll) Stock Options. With respect to stock options issued pursuant to the Company’s Equity Incentive Plan(s) (i) each stock option designated by the Company at the time of grant as an “incentive stock option” under Section 422 of the Code so qualifies, (ii) each grant of a stock option was duly authorized no later than the date on which the grant of such stock option was by its terms to be effective (the “Grant Date”) by all necessary corporate action, including, as applicable, approval by the board of directors of the Company (or a duly constituted and authorized committee thereof) and any required stockholder approval by the necessary number of votes or written consents, (iii) each such grant was made in accordance with the material terms of an Equity Incentive Plan, the Securities Act and all other applicable laws and regulatory rules or requirements, including the rules of The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC and any other exchange on which Company securities are traded and (iv) each such grant was or has now been properly accounted for in accordance with GAAP in the financial statements (including the related notes) of the Company and disclosed in the Company’s filings with the Commission in accordance with the Exchange Act and all other applicable laws, except, in the cases of clauses (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv), for any such failure, violation or default that would not be material to the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole.
3.2 Representations and Warranties of the Purchasers. Each Purchaser, for itself and for no other Purchaser, hereby represents and warrants as of the date hereof and as of the Closing Date to the Company as follows:
(a) Organization; Authority. Such Purchaser is an entity duly organized, validly existing and in good standing under the laws of the jurisdiction of its organization with full right, corporate or partnership power and authority to enter into and to consummate the transactions contemplated by the Transaction Documents and otherwise to carry out its obligations hereunder and thereunder. The execution, delivery and performance by such Purchaser of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement have been duly authorized by all necessary corporate or similar action on the part of such Purchaser. Each Transaction Document to which it is a party has been duly executed by such Purchaser, and when delivered by such Purchaser in accordance with the terms hereof, will constitute the valid and legally binding obligation of such Purchaser, enforceable against it in accordance with its terms, except (i) as limited by general equitable principles and applicable bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium and other laws of general application affecting enforcement of creditors’ rights generally, (ii) as limited by laws relating to the availability of specific performance, injunctive relief or other equitable remedies and (iii) insofar as indemnification and contribution provisions may be limited by applicable law.
(b) Own Account. Such Purchaser understands that the Securities are “restricted securities” and have not been registered under the Securities Act or any applicable state or other securities law and is acquiring the Securities as principal for its own account and not with a view to or for distributing or reselling such Securities or any part thereof in violation of the Securities Act or any applicable state or other securities law, has no present intention of distributing any of such Securities in violation of the Securities Act or any applicable state or other securities law and has no direct or indirect arrangement or understandings with any other persons to distribute or regarding the distribution of such Securities (this representation and warranty not limiting such Purchaser’s right to sell the Securities pursuant to the Registration Statement or otherwise in compliance with applicable federal and state securities laws) in violation of the Securities Act or any applicable state or other securities law. Such Purchaser is acquiring the Securities hereunder in the ordinary course of its business.
(c) Purchaser Status. At the time such Purchaser was offered the Securities, it was, and at the date hereof it is, and on each date on which it exercises any Warrants, it will be either: (i) an “accredited investor” as defined in Rule 501(a)(1), (a)(2), (a)(3), (a)(7) or (a)(8) under the Securities Act or (ii) a “qualified institutional buyer” as defined in Rule 144A(a) under the Securities Act or (iii) an “investment professional” as defined in Article 19(5) of the FPO, (iv) a high net worth company or other body within the meaning of Article 49 of the FPO, and, in the case of a Purchaser in the UK, it is a “qualified investor” for the purposes of section 86(7) of the FSMA or is otherwise permitted by law to have the offer contained in this Agreement made to it without requiring the publication and registration of a prospectus under the FSMA or (v) a “qualified investor” (qualifizierter Anleger) with the meaning of Section 2 no. 6 GSPA. No Purchaser is required to be registered as a broker-dealer under Section 15 of the Exchange Act.
(d) Experience of Such Purchaser. Such Purchaser, either alone or together with its representatives, has such knowledge, sophistication and experience in business and financial matters so as to be capable of evaluating the merits and risks of the