This Stock Purchase Agreement involves
Title: SECURITIES PURCHASE AGREEMENT
Governing Law: New Jersey Date: 3/13/2007
SECURITIES PURCHASE AGREEMENT
This Securities Purchase Agreement (this “ Agreement ”) is dated as of March 8, 2007, among VIASPACE Inc., a Nevada corporation (the “ Company ”), and each purchaser identified on the signature pages hereto (each, including its successors and assigns, a “ Purchaser ” and collectively the “ Purchasers ”).
WHEREAS, subject to the terms and conditions set forth in this Agreement and pursuant to Section 4(2) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “ Securities Act ”) and Rule 506 promulgated thereunder, the Company desires to issue and sell to each Purchaser, and each Purchaser, severally and not jointly, desires to purchase from the Company, securities of the Company as more fully described in this Agreement.
NOW, THEREFORE, IN CONSIDERATION of the mutual covenants contained in this Agreement, and for other good and valuable consideration the receipt and adequacy of which are hereby acknowledged, the Company and each Purchaser agree as follows:
1.1 Definitions . In addition to the terms defined elsewhere in this Agreement, for all purposes of this Agreement, the following terms have the meanings indicated in this Section 1.1:
“ Affiliate ” means any Person that, directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls or is controlled by or is under common control with a Person as such terms are used in and construed under Rule 144 under the Securities Act. With respect to a Purchaser, any investment fund or managed account that is managed on a discretionary basis by the same investment manager as such Purchaser will be deemed to be an Affiliate of such Purchaser.
“ Articles of Incorporation ” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3.1(c).
“ Business Day ” means any day except Saturday, Sunday, any day which shall be a federal legal holiday in the United States or any day on which banking institutions in the State of New Jersey are authorized or required by law or other governmental action to close.
“ By-laws ” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3.1(c).
“ Cash Portion ” means $990,000, representing that part of the Subscription Amount payable in cash pursuant to the terms of this Agreement.
“ Class A Warrant ” shall mean a warrant to purchase one share of common stock of the company at a Warrant Exercise Price of $0.30.
“ Class B Warrant ” shall mean a warrant to purchase one share of common stock of the company at a Warrant Exercise Price of $0.40.
“ Class A Units ” shall refer to a portion of the securities to be purchased pursuant to the terms of this Agreement. A Class A Unit shall be comprised of 2.2609 Shares and One (1) Class A Warrant.
“ Class B Units ” shall refer to a portion of the securities to be purchased pursuant to the terms of this Agreement. A Class B Unit shall be comprised of one (1) Share and one (1) Class B Warrant.
“ Closing ” means the closing of the purchase and sale of the Securities pursuant to Section 2.1.
“ Closing Date ” means the Trading Day when all of the Transaction Documents have been executed and delivered by the applicable parties thereto, and all conditions precedent to (i) the Purchasers’ obligations to pay the Subscription Amount and (ii) the Company’s obligations to deliver the Securities have been satisfied or waived.
“ Closing Price ” means on any particular date (a) the last reported closing price per share of Common Stock on such date on the Trading Market (as reported by Bloomberg L.P. at 4:15 PM (New York time)), or (b) if there is no such price on such date, then the closing price on the Trading Market on the date nearest preceding such date (as reported by Bloomberg L.P. at 4:15 PM (New York time)), or (c) if the Common Stock is not then listed or quoted on the Trading Market and if prices for the Common Stock are then reported in the “pink sheets” published by Pink Sheets LLC (or a similar organization or agency succeeding to its functions of reporting prices), the most recent price per share of the Common Stock so reported, or (d) if the shares of Common Stock are not then publicly traded the fair market value of a share of Common Stock as determined by an appraiser selected in good faith by the Purchasers of a majority in interest of the Shares then outstanding.
“ Commission ” means the Securities and Exchange Commission.
“ Common Stock ” means the common stock of the Company, par value $0.001 per share, and any other class of securities into which such securities may hereafter be reclassified or changed into.
“ Common Stock Equivalents ” means any securities of the Company or the Subsidiaries which would entitle the holder thereof to acquire at any time Common Stock, including, without limitation, any debt, preferred stock, rights, options, warrants or other instrument that is at any time convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for, or otherwise entitles the holder thereof to receive, Common Stock.
“ Company Counsel ” means Mintz Levin Cohn Ferris Glovsky and Popeo, P.C.
“ Company Indemnitees ” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 4.9(b).
“ Cornell ” means Cornell Capital Partners, LP
“ Disclosure Schedules ” means the Disclosure Schedules of the Company delivered concurrently herewith.
“ Effective Date ” means the date that the initial Registration Statement filed by the Company pursuant to the Registration Rights Agreement is first declared effective by the Commission.
“ Environmental Laws ” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3.1(n).
“ Exchange Act ” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.
“ Exempt Issuance ” means the issuance of (a) shares of Common Stock or options to employees, officers, consultants or directors of the Company pursuant to any stock option agreements existing on the date of this Agreement or any other stock or option plan duly adopted by a majority of the non-employee members of the Board of Directors of the Company or a majority of the members of a committee of non-employee directors established for such purpose, (b) securities upon the exercise or exchange of or conversion of any Securities issued hereunder and/or other securities exercisable or exchangeable for or convertible into shares of Common Stock issued and outstanding on the date of this Agreement; provided that such securities have not been amended since the date of this Agreement to increase the number of such securities or to decrease the exercise, exchange or conversion price of any such securities, and (c) securities issued pursuant to acquisitions or strategic transactions approved by a majority of the disinterested directors of the Company’s Board of Directors; provided any such issuance shall only be to a Person which is, itself or through its subsidiaries, an operating company in a business synergistic with the business of the Company and in which the Company receives benefits in addition to the investment of funds, but shall not include a transaction in which the Company is issuing securities primarily for the purpose of raising capital or to an entity whose primary business is investing in securities.
“ Existing Debentures ” means the secured convertible debentures of the Company issued to Cornell in the Original Financing, dated November 2, 2006 and November 29, 2006, in the aggregate principal amount of $2,700,000, and all accrued and unpaid interest thereon.
“ Existing Warrants ” means the warrants of the Company issued to Cornell in the Original Financing denominated Nos. VSPC-1-5; VSPC-2-5; VSPC-3-5; VSPC-4-5; and VSPC-5-5, to purchase an aggregate amount of 5,775,000 shares of Common Stock of the Company.
“ Financial Statements ” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3.1(f).
“ Indemnified Liabilities ” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 4.9(a).
“ Legend Removal Date ” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 4.1(c).
“ Liens ” means a lien, charge, security interest, encumbrance, right of first refusal, preemptive right or other restriction.
“ Non-Affiliate Purchaser ” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 4.1(c).
“ Original Financing ” means those certain transactions dated November 2, 2006 and November 29, 2006 by and between the Company and Cornell, pursuant to which the Company issued to Cornell and Cornell purchased from the Company, the Existing Debentures and the Existing Warrants.
“ Participation Maximum ” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 4.12.
“ Person ” means an individual or corporation, partnership, trust, incorporated or unincorporated association, joint venture, limited liability company, joint stock company, government (or an agency or subdivision thereof) or other entity of any kind.
“ Preferred Stock ” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3.1(c).
“ Pre-Notice ” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 4.12.
“ Proceeding ” means an action, claim, suit, investigation or proceeding (including, without limitation, an investigation or partial proceeding, such as a deposition), whether commenced or threatened.
“ Purchasers Indemnitees ” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 4.9(a).
“ Purchaser Party ” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 4.9.
“ Registration Rights Agreement ” means the Registration Rights Agreement among the Company and the Purchasers, in the form of Exhibit A attached hereto.
“ Registration Statement ” means a registration statement meeting the requirements set forth in the Registration Rights Agreement and covering the resale by the Purchasers of the Shares and the Warrant Shares.
“ Rule 144 ” means Rule 144 promulgated by the Commission pursuant to the Securities Act, as such Rule may be amended from time to time, or any similar rule or regulation hereafter adopted by the Commission having substantially the same effect as such Rule.
“ SEC Documents ” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3.1(f).
“ Securities ” means the Shares, the Original Financing Shares, the Warrants, and the Warrant Shares.
“ Securities Act ” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.
“ Shares ” means the shares of Common Stock issued or issuable to each Purchaser pursuant to this Agreement.
“ Short Sales ” shall include all “short sales” as defined in Rule 200 of Regulation SHO under the Exchange Act (but shall not be deemed to include the location and/or reservation of borrowable shares of Common Stock).
“ Subscription Amount ” means, as to each Purchaser, the aggregate amount to be paid for Units purchased hereunder as specified below such Purchaser’s name on the signature page of this Agreement and next to the heading “Subscription Amount,” in United States Dollars and in immediately available funds. The Subscription Amount for Cornell shall include the exchange, for the face value of the instrument, of the Existing Debentures.
“ Subsequent Financing ” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 4.14.
“ Subsequent Financing Notice ” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 4.12.
“ Termination Agreement ” means that certain Termination Agreement in substantially the form attached hereto as Exhibit B , providing for the termination of certain agreements entered into in connection with the Original Financing,
“ Trading Day ” means a day on which the Common Stock is traded on a Trading Market.
“ Trading Market ” means the following markets or exchanges on which the Common Stock is listed or quoted for trading on the date in question: the American Stock Exchange, the New York Stock Exchange the Nasdaq National Market, or the National Association of Securities Dealers’ OTC Bulletin Board.
“ Transaction Documents ” means this Agreement, the Warrants and the Registration Rights Agreement and any other documents or agreements executed in connection with the transactions contemplated hereunder.
“ Units ” means Class A Units and Class B Units, taken together.
“ Variable Rate Transaction ” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 4.13(b).
“ Warrants ” means the Existing Warrants, as amended to provide for an adjustment to the exercise price set forth therein.
“ Warrant Shares ” means the shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise of the Warrants.
PURCHASE AND SALE
2.1 Closing . On the Closing Date, upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein, substantially concurrent with the execution and delivery of this Agreement by the parties hereto, the Company agrees to sell, and the Purchasers agree to purchase, severally and not jointly, in the aggregate, 5,175,000 Class A Units and 600,000 Class B Units. Each Purchaser shall deliver to the Company via wire transfer of immediately available funds equal to their Subscription Amount and the Company shall deliver to each Purchaser their respective Units ( provided however , that, as payment of the Subscription Amount for its Units, Cornell shall deliver the Existing Debentures as specified herein and $990,000 via wire transfer of immediately available funds), as determined pursuant to Section 2.2(a) and the other items set forth in Section 2.2 issuable at the Closing. Upon satisfaction of the conditions set forth in Sections 2.2 and 2.3, the Closing shall occur at the offices of Company Counsel, or such other location as the parties shall mutually agree.
(a) On or prior to the Closing Date, the Company shall deliver or cause to be delivered to Cornell the following:
(i) this Agreement duly executed by the Company;
(ii) a legal opinion of Company Counsel, in the form of Exhibit B attached hereto;
(iii) a copy of the irrevocable instructions to the Company’s transfer agent instructing the transfer agent to deliver, on an expedited basis, a certificate evidencing 12,300,000 Shares included in the number of Units registered in the name of Cornell;
(iv) an amendment to the Existing Warrants adjusting the Warrant Exercise Price (as defined in the Existing Warrants), to the exercise prices set forth on Schedule 2.2(a) hereto;
(v) the Registration Rights Agreement duly executed by the Company; and
(vi) the Termination Agreement duly executed by the Company.
(b) On or prior to the Closing Date, each Purchaser shall deliver or cause to be delivered to the Company (except as noted) the following:
(i) this Agreement duly executed by such Purchaser;
(ii) such Purchaser’s Cash Portion of the Subscription Amount by wire transfer to the Company, as set forth above;
(iii) the Existing Debentures accompanied by written instructions from the record holder thereof transferring the Existing Debentures to the Company as consideration pursuant to the terms of this Agreement;
(iv) the Registration Rights Agreement duly executed by such Purchaser (including a fully completed Selling Securityholder Notice and Questionnaire);
(v) the Termination Agreement duly executed by Cornell;
(vi) evidence of the filing of a UCC-3 termination statement with respect to any UCC-1 financing statement filed in connection with the Original Financing; and
(vii) all shares pledged to Cornell in connection with the Original Financing and evidence of release of such pledge satisfactory to the Company.
2.3 Closing Conditions .
(a) The obligations of the Company hereunder in connection with the Closing are subject to the following conditions being met:
(i) the accuracy in all material respects when made and on the Closing Date of the representations and warranties of the Purchasers contained herein;
(ii) all obligations, covenants and agreements of the Purchasers required to be performed at or prior to the Closing Date shall have been performed; and
(iii) the delivery by the Purchasers of the items set forth in Section 2.2(b) of this Agreement.
(b) The respective obligations of the Purchasers hereunder in connection with the Closing are subject to the following conditions being met:
(i) the accuracy in all material respects on the Closing Date of the representations and warranties of the Company contained herein;
(ii) all obligations, covenants and agreements of the Company required to be performed at or prior to the Closing Date shall have been performed;
(iii) the delivery by the Company of the items set forth in Section 2.2(a) of this Agreement;
(iv) there shall have been no Material Adverse Effect with respect to the Company since the date hereof; and
(v) from the date hereof to the Closing Date, trading in the Common Stock shall not have been suspended by the Commission or the Company’s principal Trading Market (except for any suspension of trading of limited duration agreed to by the Company, which suspension shall be terminated prior to the Closing), and, at any time prior to the Closing Date, trading in securities generally as reported by Bloomberg Financial Markets shall not have been suspended or limited, or minimum prices shall not have been established on securities whose trades are reported by such service, or on any Trading Market, nor shall a banking moratorium have been declared either by the United States or New York State authorities nor shall there have occurred any material outbreak or escalation of hostilities or other national or international calamity of such magnitude in its effect on, or any material adverse change in, any financial market which, in each case, in the reasonable judgment of each Purchaser, makes it impracticable or inadvisable to purchase the Shares at the Closing.
REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES
3.1 Representations and Warranties of the Company . Except as set forth in the SEC Reports or under the corresponding section of the Disclosure Schedules which Disclosure Schedules shall be deemed a part hereof and to qualify any representation or warranty otherwise made herein to the extent of such disclosure, the Company hereby makes the representations and warranties set forth below to each Purchaser:
(a) Subsidiaries . All of the direct and indirect majority-owned subsidiaries of the Company are set forth on Schedule 3.1(a). The Company owns, directly or indirectly, all of the capital stock or other equity interests of each Subsidiary free and clear of any Liens other than liens which would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect (as defined below), and all the issued and outstanding shares of capital stock of each Subsidiary are validly issued and are fully paid, non-assessable and free of preemptive and similar rights to subscribe for or purchase securities held by any Person other than the Company or any other Subsidiary.
(b) Organization and Qualification . The Company and each of the Subsidiaries is an entity duly incorporated or otherwise organized, validly existing and in good standing under the laws of the jurisdiction of its incorporation or organization (as applicable), with the requisite power and authority to own and use its properties and assets and to carry on its business as currently conducted. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary is in violation or default of any of the provisions of its respective certificate or articles of incorporation, bylaws or other organizational or charter documents. Each of the Company and the Subsidiaries is duly qualified to conduct business and is in good standing as a foreign corporation or other entity in each jurisdiction in which the nature of the business conducted or property owned by it makes such qualification necessary, except where the failure to be so qualified or in good standing, as the case may be, would not reasonably be expected to result in (i) a material adverse effect on the legality, validity or enforceability of any Transaction Document, (ii) a material adverse effect on the results of operations, assets, business or condition (financial or otherwise) of the Company and the Subsidiaries, taken as a whole, or (iii) a material adverse effect on the Company’s ability to perform in any material respect on a timely basis its obligations under any Transaction Document (any of (i), (ii) or (iii), a “Material Adverse Effect”) and no Proceeding of which the Company has received notice has been instituted in any such jurisdiction revoking, limiting or curtailing or seeking to revoke, limit or curtail such power and authority or qualification in a manner that would be reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.
(c) Authorization; Enforcement . The Company has the requisite corporate power and authority to enter into and to consummate the transactions contemplated to be consummated by it by each of the Transaction Documents and otherwise to carry out its obligations hereunder and thereunder. The execution and delivery of each of the Transaction Documents by the Company and the consummation by it of the transactions contemplated hereby and thereby to be consummated by it have been duly authorized by all necessary action on the part of the Company and no further action is required by the Company, its Board of Directors or its stockholders in connection therewith other than in connection with the Required Approvals. Each Transaction Document has been (or upon delivery will have been) duly executed by the Company and, when delivered in accordance with the terms hereof and thereof, will constitute the valid and binding obligation of the Company enforceable against the Company in accordance with its terms except (i) as limited by general equitable principles and applicable bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium and other laws of general application affecting enforcement of creditors’ rights generally, (ii) as limited by laws relating to the availability of specific performance, injunctive relief or other equitable remedies and (iii) insofar as indemnification and contribution provisions may be limited by applicable law or regulation or by a court of law.
(d) No Conflicts . The execution, delivery and performance of the Transaction Documents by the Company, the issuance and sale of the Shares and the consummation by the Company of the other transactions contemplated hereby and thereby do not and will not (i) conflict with or violate any provision of the Company’s or any Subsidiary’s certificate or articles of incorporation, bylaws or other organizational documents, or (ii) conflict with, or constitute a default (or an event that with notice or lapse of time or both would become a default) under, result in the creation of any Lien upon any of the properties or assets of the Company or any Subsidiary, or give to others any rights of termination, amendment, acceleration or cancellation (with or without notice, lapse of time or both) of, any agreement, credit facility, debt or other instrument (evidencing a Company or Subsidiary debt or otherwise) or other understanding to which the Company or any Subsidiary is a party or by which any property or asset of the Company or any Subsidiary is bound or affected, or (iii) subject to the Required Approvals, conflict with or result in a violation of any law, rule, regulation, order, judgment, injunction, decree or other restriction of any court or governmental authority to which the Company or a Subsidiary is subject (including federal and state securities laws and regulations), or by which any property or asset of the Company or a Subsidiary is bound or affected; except in the case of each of clauses (ii) and (iii), such as would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.
(e) Filings, Consents and Approvals . The Company is not required to obtain any consent, waiver, authorization or order of, give any notice to, or make any filing or registration with, any court or other federal, state, local or other governmental authority or other Person, in each case, having jurisdiction over the Company, its Subsidiaries or their respective properties, in connection with the execution, delivery and performance by the Company of the Transaction Documents, other than (i) filings required pursuant to Section 4.4 of this Agreement and the Registration Rights Agreement, (ii) the filing with the Commission of the Registration Statement, (iii) application(s) to each applicable Trading Market for the listing of the Securities for trading thereon in the time and manner required thereby, and (iv) the filing of Form D with the Commission and such filings as are required to be made under applicable state securities laws (collectively, the “Required Approvals”).
(f) Issuance of the Securities . The Shares are duly authorized and, when issued and paid for in accordance with the applicable Transaction Documents, will be duly and validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable, free and clear of all Liens imposed by the Company other than restrictions on transfer provided for in the Transaction Documents. The Warrant Shares, when issued and paid for in accordance with the terms of the Transaction Documents, will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable, free and clear of all Liens imposed by the Company other than restrictions on transfer provided for in the Transaction Documents. The Company has reserved from its duly authorized capital stock the maximum number of shares of Common Stock issuable pursuant to this Agreement and the Warrants.
(g) Capitalization . As of November 10, 2006, the authorized capital stock of the Company consists of 800,000,000 shares of Common Stock and 10,000,000 shares of Preferred Stock, par value $0.001 (“Preferred Stock”) of which 292,512,205 shares of Common Stock and zero shares of Preferred Stock were issued and outstanding. All of such outstanding shares have been validly issued and are fully paid and nonassessable. As of the date of this Agreement, the Company has not issued any capital stock since its most recently filed periodic report under the Exchange Act, other than pursuant to the exercise of stock options under the Company’s stock option plans, the issuance of shares of Common Stock to employees pursuant to the Company’s employee stock purchase plan and pursuant to the conversion or exercise of Common Stock Equivalents outstanding as of the date of the most recently filed periodic report under the Exchange Act. No Person has any right of first refusal, preemptive right, right of participation, or any similar right to participate in the transactions contemplated by the Transaction Documents other than rights which have been waived. As of the date of this Agreement, except as a result of the purchase and sale of the Securities, there are no outstanding options, warrants, script rights to subscribe to, calls or commitments of any character whatsoever relating to, or securities, rights or obligations convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for, or giving any Person any right to subscribe for or acquire, any shares of Common Stock, or contracts, commitments, understandings or arrangements by which the Company or any Subsidiary is or may become bound to issue additional shares of Common Stock or Common Stock Equivalents. The issuance and sale of the Securities will not obligate the Company to issue shares of Common Stock or other securities to any Person (other than the Purchasers) and will not result in a right of any holder of Company securities to adjust the exercise, conversion, exchange or reset price under any of such securities. All of the outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company have been issued in compliance with all applicable federal and state securities laws, and none of such outstanding shares was issued in violation of any preemptive rights or similar rights to subscribe for or purchase securities. No further approval or authorization of any stockholder, the Board of Directors of the Company or others is required for the issuance and sale of the Securities. There are no stockholders agreements, voting agreements or other similar agreements with respect to the Company’s capital stock to which the Company is a party or, to the knowledge of the Company, between or among any of the Company’s stockholders.
(h) SEC Reports; Financial Statements . The Company has filed all reports, schedules, forms, statements and other documents required to be filed by it under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, including pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) thereof, for the two years preceding the date hereof (or such shorter period as the Company was required by law or regulation to file such material) (the foregoing materials, including the exhibits thereto and documents incorporated by reference therein, being collectively referred to herein as the “SEC Reports”) on a timely basis or has received a valid extension of such time of filing and has filed any such SEC Reports prior to the expiration of any such extension. None of the SEC Reports, when filed, contained any untrue statement of a material fact or omitted to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. As of their respective dates, the financial statements of the Company included in the SEC Reports complied as to form in all material respects with applicable accounting requirements and the published rules and regulations of the Commission with respect thereto as in effect at the time of filing. Such financial statements have been prepared in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles (“ GAAP ”) applied on a consistent basis during the periods involved, except as may be otherwise specified in such financial statements or the notes thereto and except that unaudited financial statements may not contain all footnotes required by GAAP and may be condensed or summary statements, and fairly present in all material respects the financial position of the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries as of the dates thereof and the results of operations and cash flows for the periods then ended, subject, in the case of unaudited statements, to normal, year-end audit adjustments.
(i) Material Changes; Undisclosed Events, Liabilities or Developments . Since the date of the latest audited financial statements included within the SEC Reports, except as specifically disclosed in a subsequent SEC Report, (i) there has been no event, occurrence or development that has had or that would reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, (ii) the Company has not incurred any liabilities (contingent or otherwise) other than (A) trade payables and accrued expenses incurred in the ordinary course of business consistent with past practice and (B) liabilities not required to be reflected in the Company’s financial statements pursuant to GAAP or disclosed in filings made with the Commission, (iii) the Company has not altered its method of accounting, (iv) the Company has not declared or made any dividend or distribution of cash or other property to its stockholders or purchased, redeemed or made any agreements to purchase or redeem any shares of its capital stock and (v) the Company has not issued any equity securities to any officer, director or Affiliate, except pursuant to existing Company stock option plans. Except for the issuance of the Securities contemplated by this Agreement, no event, liability or development has occurred or exists with respect to the Company or its Subsidiaries or their respective business, properties, operations or financial condition, that would be required to be disclosed by the Company under applicable securities laws at the time this representation is made that has not been publicly disclosed at least one (1) Trading Day prior to the date that this representation is made.
(j) Litigation . There is no action, suit, inquiry, notice of violation, proceeding or investigation pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened against the Company, any Subsidiary or any of their respective properties before or by any court, arbitrator, governmental or administrative agency or regulatory authority (federal, state, county, local or foreign) having jurisdiction over the Company, its Subsidiaries or their respective properties (collectively, an “Action”) which (i) adversely affects or challenges the legality, validity or enforceability of any of the Transaction Documents or the Securities or (ii) would reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary, and to the knowledge of the Company, no current director or officer of the Company or any Subsidiary, is or has been the subject of any Action involving a claim of violation of or liability under federal or state securities laws or a claim of breach of fiduciary duty, with respect to the Company or any Subsidiary, since June 30, 2005, and with respect to any such director or officer, or in the last five years. To the knowledge of the Company, there has not been in the last five years, and there is not pending, any investigation by the Commission involving the Company or any current director or officer of the Company. To the knowledge of the Company, the Commission has not issued any stop order or other order, in each case, which is still in effect, suspending the effectiveness of any registration statement filed by the Company or any Subsidiary under the Exchange Act or the Securities Act.
(k) Labor Relations . No material labor dispute exists or, to the knowledge of the Company, is imminent with respect to any of the employees of the Company which would reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect. None of the Company’s or its Subsidiaries’ employees is a member of a union that relates to such employee’s relationship with the Company, and neither the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is a party to a collective bargaining agreement, and the Company and its Subsidiaries believe that their relationships with their employees are good. No executive officer, to the knowledge of the Company, is, or is now expected to be, in violation of any material term of any employment contract, confidentiality, disclosure or proprietary information agreement or non-competition agreement, or any other contract or agreement or any restrictive covenant, in each case, where such violation would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect, and the continued employment of each such executive officer does not subject the Company or any of its Subsidiaries to any liability with respect to any of the foregoing matters that would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. The Company and its Subsidiaries are in compliance with all U.S. federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations relating to employment and employment practices, terms and conditions of employment and wages and hours, except where the failure to be in compliance would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.
(l) Compliance . Except in each case as would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, neither the Company nor any Subsidiary (i) is in default under or in violation of (and no event has occurred that has not been waived that, with notice or lapse of time or both, would result in a default by the Company or any Subsidiary under), nor has the Company or any Subsidiary received notice of a claim that it is in default under or that it is in violation of, any indenture, loan or credit agreement or any other agreement or instrument to which it is a party or by which it or any of its properties is bound (whether or not such default or violation has been waived), (ii) is in violation of any applicable order of any court, arbitrator or governmental body, or (iii) is or has been in violation of any applicable statute, rule or regulation of any governmental authority, including without limitation all foreign, federal, state and local laws applicable to its business and all such laws that affect the environment.
(m) Regulatory Permits . The Company and the Subsidiaries possess all material certificates, authorizations and permits issued by the appropriate federal, state, local or foreign regulatory authorities necessary to conduct their respective businesses as described in the SEC Reports, except where the failure to possess such permits would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect (“Material Permits”), and neither the Company nor any Subsidiary has received any notice of proceedings relating to the revocation or modification of any Material Permit.
(n) Title to Assets . Except as would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, the Company and the Subsidiaries have good and marketable title in fee simple to all real property owned by them that is material to the business of the Company and the Subsidiaries and good and marketable title in all personal property owned by them that is material to the business of the Company and the Subsidiaries, in each case free and clear of all Liens, except for Liens as do not materially affect the value of such property and do not materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company and the Subsidiaries and Liens for the payment of federal, state or other taxes, the payment of which is neither delinquent nor subject to penalties, except for taxes being contested in good faith where an appropriate reserve has been established. Any real property and facilities held under lease by the Company and the Subsidiaries are held by them under valid, subsisting and enforceable leases with which the Company and the Subsidiaries are in compliance, except where the failure of (i) such lease to be valid, subsisting or enforceable or (ii) the Company or its Subsidiaries to be in compliance, would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.
(o) Patents and Trademarks . To the knowledge of the Company, the Company and the Subsidiaries have, or have adequate rights or licenses to use, all patents, trademarks, service marks, trade names, trade secrets, inventions, copyrights, licenses and other intellectual property rights and similar rights necessary or material for use in connection with their respective businesses as described in the SEC Reports and which the failure to so have would have a Material Adverse Effect (collectively, the “Intellectual Property Rights”). Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary has received a notice (written or otherwise) that the Intellectual Property Rights used by the Company or any Subsidiary violates or infringes upon the rights of any Person. To the knowledge of the Company, all such Intellectual Property Rights are enforceable. The Company and its Subsidiaries have taken reasonable security measures to protect the secrecy, confidentiality and value of all of their intellectual properties, except where failure to do so would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.
(p) Insurance . The Company and the Subsidiaries are insured by insurers of recognized financial responsibility against such losses and risks and in such amounts as management of the Company believes to be prudent and customary in the businesses in which the Company and the Subsidiaries are engaged. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary has any reason to believe that it will not be able to renew its existing insurance coverage as and when such coverage expires or to obtain similar coverage from similar insurers as may be necessary to continue its business at a cost that would not result in a Material Adverse Effect.
(q) Transactions With Affiliates and Employees . Except for arm’s length transactions pursuant to which the Company makes payments in the ordinary course of business upon terms no less favorable than the Company could obtain from third parties, none of the officers or directors of the Company and, to the knowledge of the Company, none of the employees of the Company, is presently a party to any transaction with the Company or any Subsidiary (other than for services as employees, officers and directors), including any contract, agreement or other arrangement providing for the furnishing of services to or by, providing for rental of real or personal property to or from, or otherwise requiring payments to or from any officer, director or such employee or, to the knowledge of the Company, any entity in which any officer, director, or any such employee has a substantial interest or is an executive officer, director, trustee or partner, in each case in excess of $120,000 other than (i) for payment of salary or consulting fees for services rendered, (ii) reimbursement for expenses incurred on behalf of the Company or any Subsidiary and (iii) for other employee benefits, including stock option and restricted stock agreements under any stock option plan of the Company.
(r) Sarbanes-Oxley; Internal Accounting Controls . The Company is in material compliance with all provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 which are applicable to it as of the Closing Date. The Company and the Subsidiaries maintain a system of internal accounting controls sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorizations, (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP and to maintain asset accountability, and (iii) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with the existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences. The Company has established disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Exchange Act Rule 15d-15(e)) for the Company and designed such disclosure controls and procedures to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in the reports it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported, within the time periods specified in the Commission’s rules and forms. The Company’s certifying officers have evaluated the effectiveness of the Company’s disclosure controls and procedures as of the end of the period covered by the Company’s most recently filed periodic report under the Exchange Act (such date, the “Evaluation Date”). The Company presented in its most recently filed periodic report under the Exchange Act the conclusions of the certifying officers about the effectiveness of the disclosure controls and procedures based on their evaluations as of the Evaluation Date. Since the Evaluation Date, there have been no changes in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting (as such term is defined in the Exchange Act) that has materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.
(s) Certain Fees . Other than as set forth in the Transaction Documents, no brokerage or finder’s fees or commissions are or will be payable by the Company to any broker, financial advisor or consultant, finder, placement agent, investment banker, bank or other Person with respect to the transactions contemplated by the Transaction Documents. The Purchasers shall have no obligation with respect to any fees or with respect to any claims made by or on behalf of other Persons for fees of a type contemplated in this Section that may be due in connection with the transactions contemplated by the Transaction Documents.
(t) Private Placement . Assuming the accuracy of the Purchasers representations and warranties set forth in the Transaction Documents, no registration under the Securities Act is required for the offer and sale of the Securities by the Company to the Purchasers as contemplated hereby. The issuance and sale of the Securities hereunder does not contravene the rules and regulations of the National Association of Securities Dealers’ OTC Bulletin Board.
(u) Investment Company . The Company is not, and is not an Affiliate of, and immediately after receipt of payment for the Securities, will not be required to register as an “investment company” within the meaning of the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended.
(v) Registration Rights . Other than each of the Purchasers, no Person has any right to cause the Company to effect the registration under the Securities Act of any securities of the Company.
(w) Listing and Maintenance Requirements . The Company has not, in the twelve (12) months preceding the date hereof, received notice from any Trading Market on which the Common Stock is or has been listed or quoted to the effect that the Company is not in compliance with the listing or maintenance requirements of such Trading Market. The Company is, and has no reason to believe that it will not in the foreseeable future continue to be, in compliance with all such listing and maintenance requirements.
(x) Application of Takeover Protections . Assuming that no Purchaser beneficially owns shares of Common Stock (other than the Securities), the Company and its Board of Directors have taken all necessary action, if any, in order to render inapplicable any control share acquisition, business combination, poison pill (including any distribution under a rights agreement) or other similar anti-takeover provision under the Company’s Certificate of Incorporation (or similar organizational document) or the laws of its state of incorporation that is or could become applicable to the Purchasers as a result of the Purchasers and the Company fulfilling their obligations or exercising their rights under the Transaction Documents, including without limitation as a result of the Company’s issuance of the Securities and the Purchasers’ ownership of the Securities.
(y) Disclosure . Except with respect to the terms and conditions of the transactions contemplated by the Transaction Documents, the Company confirms that, neither it nor any other Person acting on its behalf has provided any of the Purchasers or their agents or counsel with any information that it believ