This Purchase and Sale Agreement involves
Title: SECURITIES PURCHASE AGREEMENT
Governing Law: New York Date: 12/8/2006
Law Firm: McKenna Long
SECURITIES PURCHASE AGREEMENT
This Securities Purchase Agreement (this " Agreement ") is dated as of December 5, 2006 among Ceragenix Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the " Company "), and each purchaser identified on the signature pages hereto (each, including its successors and assigns, a " Purchaser " and collectively the " Purchasers ").
WHEREAS, subject to the terms and conditions set forth in this Agreement and pursuant to Section 4(2) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the " Securities Act "), and Rule 506 promulgated thereunder, the Company desires to issue and sell to each Purchaser, and each Purchaser, severally and not jointly, desires to purchase from the Company, securities of the Company as more fully described in this Agreement.
NOW, THEREFORE, IN CONSIDERATION of the mutual covenants contained in this Agreement, and for other good and valuable consideration, the receipt and adequacy of which are hereby acknowledged, the Company and each Purchaser agree as follows:
1.1 Definitions . In addition to the terms defined elsewhere in this Agreement: (a) capitalized terms that are not otherwise defined herein have the meanings given to such terms in the Debentures (as defined herein), and (b) the following terms have the meanings set forth in this Section 1.1:
" Action " shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3.1(j).
" Affiliate " means any Person that, directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls or is controlled by or is under common control with a Person, as such terms are used in and construed under Rule 144 under the Securities Act. With respect to a Purchaser, any investment fund or managed account that is managed on a discretionary basis by the same investment manager as such Purchaser will be deemed to be an Affiliate of such Purchaser.
" Business Day " means any day except Saturday, Sunday, any day which shall be a federal legal holiday in the United States or any day on which banking institutions in the State of New York are authorized or required by law or other governmental action to close.
" Class A Warrants " means those certain Class A Common Stock Purchase Warrants issued by the Company to the Note Holders on November 28, 2005.
" Closing " means the closing of the purchase and sale of the Securities pursuant to Section 2.1.
" Closing Date " means the Trading Day when all of the Transaction Documents have been executed and delivered by the applicable parties thereto, and all conditions precedent to (i) the Purchasers’ obligations to pay the Subscription Amount and (ii) the Company’s obligations to deliver the Securities have been satisfied or waived.
" Commission " means the Securities and Exchange Commission.
" Common Stock " means the common stock of the Company, par value $0.0001 per share, and any other class of securities into which such securities may hereafter be reclassified or changed into.
" Common Stock Equivalents " means any securities of the Company or the Subsidiaries which would entitle the holder thereof to acquire at any time Common Stock, including, without limitation, any debt, preferred stock, rights, options, warrants or other instrument that is at any time convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for, or otherwise entitles the holder thereof to receive, Common Stock.
" Company Counsel " means McKenna, Long & Aldridge LLP, with offices located at 1875 Lawrence Street, Suite 200, Denver, Colorado 80203.
" Conversion Price " shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in the Debentures.
" Debentures " means, the 9% Secured Convertible Debentures due, subject to the terms therein, 3 years from their date of issuance, issued by the Company to the Purchasers hereunder, in the form of Exhibit A attached hereto.
" Disclosure Schedules " shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3.1.
" Effective Date " means the date that the initial Registration Statement filed by the Company pursuant to the Registration Rights Agreement is first declared effective by the Commission.
" Evaluation Date " shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3.1(r).
" Exchange Act " means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.
" Exempt Issuance " means the issuance of (a) shares of Common Stock or options to employees, officers or directors of the Company pursuant to any stock or option plan duly adopted for such purpose by a majority of the non-employee members of the Board of Directors of the Company or a majority of the members of a committee of non-employee directors established for the purpose of administering the Company’s stock and/or option plans including the Compensation Committee, (b) securities upon the exercise or exchange of or conversion of any Securities issued hereunder, (c) securities issued pursuant to acquisitions or strategic transactions approved by a majority of the
disinterested directors of the Company, provided any such issuance shall only be to a Person which is, itself or through its subsidiaries, an operating company in a business synergistic with the business of the Company and in which the Company receives benefits in addition to the investment of funds, but shall not include a transaction in which the Company is issuing securities primarily for the purpose of raising capital or to an entity whose primary business is investing in securities and (d) securities exercisable or exchangeable for or convertible into shares of Common Stock issued and outstanding on the date of this Agreement, provided that such securities have not been amended since the date of this Agreement to increase the number of such securities or to decrease the exercise, exchange or conversion price of such securities; provided , however , the term "Exempt Issuance" for purposes of Section 5 of the Debentures and Section 3 of the Warrants shall not include shares of Common Stock issued or issuable upon conversion, exchange or exercise of the Notes, the Class A Warrants or other Common Stock Equivalents outstanding as of the date hereof in the event there is any adjustment to the conversion, exercise or exchange price of such Notes, the Class A Warrants or other Common Stock Equivalents. For clarity, any such adjustment to the conversion, exercise or exchange price of the Notes, the Class A Warrants or other Common Stock Equivalents shall be subject to Section 5 of the Debentures and Section 3 of the Warrants.
" FWS " means Feldman Weinstein & Smith LLP with offices located at 420 Lexington Avenue, Suite 2620, New York, New York 10170-0002.
" GAAP " shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3.1(h).
" Indebtedness " shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3.1(bb).
" Intellectual Property Rights " shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3.1(o).
" Intercreditor Agreement " means that certain Intercreditor Agreement in the Form of Exhibit H attached hereto, dated as of the date hereof between the Purchasers and Note Holders.
" Legend Removal Date " shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 4.1(c).
" Liens " means a lien, charge, security interest, encumbrance, right of first refusal, preemptive right or other restriction.
" Material Adverse Effect " shall have the meaning assigned to such term in Section 3.1(b).
" Material Permits " shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3.1(m).
" Maximum Rate " shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 5.17.
" Note Holders " means Longview Equity Fund, LP, Longview Fund, LP, Alpha Capital Aktiengesellschaft and Iroquois Capital.
" Notes " means those secured convertible notes issued by the Company to the Note Holders on November 28, 2005 in the original aggregate principal amount of $3,200,000.
" Participation Maximum " shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 4.13.
" Permitted Lien " shall have the meaning set forth in the Debentures.
" Person " means an individual or corporation, partnership, trust, incorporated or unincorporated association, joint venture, limited liability company, joint stock company, government (or an agency or subdivision thereof) or other entity of any kind.
" Pre-Notice " shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 4.13.
" Proceeding " means an action, claim, suit, investigation or proceeding (including, without limitation, an investigation or partial proceeding, such as a deposition), whether commenced or threatened.
" Purchaser Party " shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 4.11.
" Registration Rights Agreement " means the Registration Rights Agreement, dated the date hereof, among the Company and the Purchasers, in the form of Exhibit B attached hereto.
" Registration Statement " means a registration statement meeting the requirements set forth in the Registration Rights Agreement and covering the resale of the Underlying Shares by each Purchaser as provided for in the Registration Rights Agreement.
" Required Approvals " shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3.1(e).
" Required Minimum " means, as of any date, the maximum aggregate number of shares of Common Stock then issued or potentially issuable in the future pursuant to the Transaction Documents, including any Underlying Shares issuable upon exercise or conversion in full of all Warrants and Debentures (including Underlying Shares issuable as payment of interest), ignoring any conversion or exercise limits set forth therein, and assuming that the Conversion Price is at all times on and after the date of determination 75% of the then Conversion Price on the Trading Day immediately prior to the date of determination.
" Rule 144 " means Rule 144 promulgated by the Commission pursuant to the Securities Act, as such Rule may be amended from time to time, or any similar rule or regulation hereafter adopted by the Commission having substantially the same effect as such Rule.
" SEC Reports " shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3.1(h).
" Securities " means the Debentures, the Warrants, the Warrant Shares and the Underlying Shares.
" Securities Act " means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated hereunder.
" Security Agreement " means the Amended and Restated Security Agreement, dated the date hereof, among the Company, its Subsidiaries, the Note Holders and the Purchasers, in the form of Exhibit E attached hereto.
" Security Documents " shall mean the Security Agreement, the Subsidiary Guarantees and any other documents and filing required thereunder in order to grant the Purchasers a security interest in the assets of the Company and the Subsidiaries as provided in the Security Agreement, including all UCC-1 filing receipts Collateral. The Purchasers and the Note Holders have agreed to hold their respective security interests pari passu , pursuant to the terms of the Intercreditor Agreement.
" Series A Stockholders " means those holders of the Company’s Series A Convertible Preferred Stock.
" Short Sales " means all "short sales" as defined in Rule 200 of Regulation SHO under the Exchange Act (but shall not be deemed to include the location and/or reservation of borrowable shares of Common Stock).
" Subscription Amount " means, as to each Purchaser, the aggregate amount to be paid for Debentures and Warrants purchased hereunder as specified below such Purchaser’s name on the signature page of this Agreement and next to the heading "Subscription Amount", in United States dollars and in immediately available funds.
" Subsequent Financing " shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 4.13.
" Subsequent Financing Notice " shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 4.13.
" Subsidiary " means any subsidiary of the Company as set forth on Schedule 3.1(a) .
" Subsidiary Guarantee " means the Subsidiary Guarantee, dated the date hereof, by each Subsidiary in favor of the Purchasers, in the form of Exhibit F attached hereto.
" Trading Day " means a day on which the Common Stock is listed or quoted for trading on a Trading Market and, if the Common Stock is not then listed or quoted for trading on a Trading Market, "Trading Day" shall mean a Business Day.
" Trading Market " means the following markets or exchanges on which the Common Stock is listed or quoted for trading on the date in question: the American Stock Exchange, the Nasdaq Capital Market, the Nasdaq Global Market, the Nasdaq Global Select Market, the New York Stock Exchange or the OTC Bulletin Board.
" Transaction Documents " means this Agreement, the Debentures, the Warrants, the Registration Rights Agreement, the Security Agreement, the Subsidiary Guarantee, all exhibits and schedules hereto and thereto and any other documents or agreements executed in connection with the transactions contemplated hereunder.
" Transfer Agent " means Corporate Stock Transfer, with a mailing address of 3200 Cherry Creek Drive South, Suite 430, Denver, Colorado 80209, and a facsimile number of (303) 777-3094, and any successor transfer agent of the Company.
" Underlying Shares " means the shares of Common Stock issued and issuable upon conversion or redemption of the Debentures and upon exercise of the Warrants and issued and issuable in lieu of the cash payment of interest on the Debentures in accordance with the terms of the Debentures.
" Variable Rate Transaction " shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 4.14(b).
" VWAP " means, for any date, the price determined by the first of the following clauses that applies: (a) if the Common Stock is then listed or quoted on a Trading Market, the daily volume weighted average price of the Common Stock for such date (or the nearest preceding date) on the Trading Market on which the Common Stock is then listed or quoted as reported by Bloomberg L.P. (based on a Trading Day from 9:30 a.m. New York City time to 4:02 p.m. New York City time); (b) if the OTC Bulletin Board is not a Trading Market, the volume weighted average price of the Common Stock for such date (or the nearest preceding date) on the OTC Bulletin Board; (c) if the Common Stock is not then listed or quoted on the OTC Bulletin Board and if prices for the Common Stock are then reported in the "Pink Sheets" published by Pink Sheets, LLC (or a similar organization or agency succeeding to its functions of reporting prices), the most recent bid price per share of the Common Stock so reported; or (d) in all other cases, the fair market value of a share of Common Stock as determined by an independent appraiser selected in good faith by the Holder and reasonably acceptable to the Company, the fees and expenses of which shall be paid by the Company.
" Warrants " means collectively the Common Stock purchase warrants delivered to the Purchasers at the Closing in accordance with Section 2.2(a) hereof, which Warrants shall be exercisable immediately and have a term of exercise equal to 5 years, in the form of Exhibit C attached hereto.
" Warrant Shares " means the shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise of the Warrants.
PURCHASE AND SALE
2.1 Closing . On the Closing Date, upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein, substantially concurrent with the execution and delivery of this Agreement by the parties hereto, the Company agrees to sell, and each Purchaser, severally and not jointly, agrees to purchase, an aggregate of up to $5,000,000 in principal amount of the Debentures. Each Purchaser shall deliver to the Company, via wire transfer or a certified check, immediately available funds equal to its Subscription Amount and the Company shall deliver to each Purchaser its respective Debenture and a Warrant, as determined pursuant to Section 2.2(a), and the Company and each Purchaser shall deliver the other items set forth in Section 2.2 deliverable at the Closing. Upon satisfaction of the conditions set forth in Sections 2.2 and 2.3, the Closing shall occur at the offices of FWS or such other location as the parties shall mutually agree.
2.2 Deliveries .
(a) On the Closing Date, the Company shall deliver or cause to be delivered to each Purchaser the following:
(i) this Agreement duly executed by the Company;
(ii) a legal opinion of Company Counsel, in the form of Exhibit D attached hereto;
(iii) a Debenture with a principal amount equal to such Purchaser’s Subscription Amount, registered in the name of such Purchaser;
(iv) a Warrant registered in the name of such Purchaser to purchase up to a number of shares of Common Stock equal to 50% of such Purchaser’s Subscription Amount divided by $2.15107, with an exercise price equal to $2.37, subject to adjustment therein;
(v) the Security Agreement, duly executed by the Company and each Subsidiary, along with all of the Security Documents, including the Subsidiary Guarantees, duly executed by the parties thereto; and
(vi) the Registration Rights Agreement duly executed by the Company.
(b) On the Closing Date, each Purchaser shall deliver or cause to be delivered to the Company the following:
(i) this Agreement duly executed by such Purchaser;
(ii) such Purchaser’s Subscription Amount by wire transfer to the
account as specified in writing by the Company;
(iii) the Security Agreement duly executed by such Purchaser; and
(iv) the Registration Rights Agreement duly executed by such Purchaser.
2.3 Closing Conditions .
(a) The obligations of the Company hereunder in connection with the Closing are subject to the following conditions being met:
(i) the accuracy in all material respects when made and on the Closing Date of the representations and warranties of the Purchasers contained herein;
(ii) all obligations, covenants and agreements of the Purchasers required to be performed at or prior to the Closing Date shall have been performed; and
(iii) the delivery by the Purchasers of the items set forth in Section 2.2(b) of this Agreement.
(b) The respective obligations of the Purchasers hereunder in connection with the Closing are subject to the following conditions being met:
(i) the accuracy in all material respects when made and on the Closing Date of the representations and warranties of the Company contained herein;
(ii) all obligations, covenants and agreements of the Company required to be performed at or prior to the Closing Date shall have been performed;
(iii) the delivery by the Company of the items set forth in Section 2.2(a) of this Agreement;
(iv) there shall have been no Material Adverse Effect with respect to the Company since the date hereof;
(v) the Note Holders shall have executed and delivered the Security Agreement; and
(vi) from the date hereof to the Closing Date, trading in the Common Stock shall not have been suspended by the Commission or the Company’s principal Trading Market (except for any suspension of trading of limited duration agreed to by the Company, which suspension shall be terminated prior to the Closing), and, at any time prior to the Closing Date, trading in securities generally as reported by Bloomberg L.P. shall not have been suspended or limited, or minimum prices shall not have been established on securities whose trades are
reported by such service, or on any Trading Market, nor shall a banking moratorium have been declared either by the United States or New York State authorities nor shall there have occurred any material outbreak or escalation of hostilities or other national or international calamity of such magnitude in its effect on, or any material adverse change in, any financial market which, in each case, in the reasonable judgment of each Purchaser, makes it impracticable or inadvisable to purchase the Debentures at the Closing.
REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES
3.1 Representations and Warranties of the Company . Except as set forth under the corresponding section of the disclosure schedules delivered to the Purchasers concurrently herewith (the " Disclosure Schedules "), which Disclosure Schedules shall be deemed a part hereof and to qualify any representation or warranty otherwise made herein to the extent of such disclosure, the Company hereby makes the following representations and warranties to each Purchaser:
(a) Subsidiaries . All of the direct and indirect subsidiaries of the Company are set forth on Schedule 3.1(a) . The Company owns, directly or indirectly, all of the capital stock or other equity interests of each Subsidiary free and clear of any Liens, other than Permitted Liens, and all of the issued and outstanding shares of capital stock of each Subsidiary are validly issued and are fully paid, non-assessable and free of preemptive and similar rights to subscribe for or purchase securities. If the Company has no subsidiaries, all other references to the Subsidiaries or any of them in the Transaction Documents shall be disregarded.
(b) Organization and Qualification . The Company and each of the Subsidiaries is an entity duly incorporated or otherwise organized, validly existing and in good standing under the laws of the jurisdiction of its incorporation or organization (as applicable), with the requisite power and authority to own and use its properties and assets and to carry on its business as currently conducted. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary is in violation or default of any of the provisions of its respective certificate or articles of incorporation, bylaws or other organizational or charter documents. Each of the Company and the Subsidiaries is duly qualified to conduct business and is in good standing as a foreign corporation or other entity in each jurisdiction in which the nature of the business conducted or property owned by it makes such qualification necessary, except where the failure to be so qualified or in good standing, as the case may be, could not have or reasonably be expected to result in (i) a material adverse effect on the legality, validity or enforceability of any Transaction Document, (ii) a material adverse effect on the results of operations, assets, business, prospects or condition (financial or otherwise) of the Company and the Subsidiaries, taken as a whole, or (iii) a material adverse effect on the Company’s ability to perform in any material respect on a timely basis its obligations under any Transaction Document (any of (i), (ii) or (iii), a " Material Adverse Effect ") and no Proceeding has been instituted in any such jurisdiction revoking,
limiting or curtailing or seeking to revoke, limit or curtail such power and authority or qualification.
(c) Authorization; Enforcement . The Company has the requisite corporate power and authority to enter into and to consummate the transactions contemplated by each of the Transaction Documents and otherwise to carry out its obligations hereunder and thereunder. The execution and delivery of each of the Transaction Documents by the Company and the consummation by it of the transactions contemplated hereby and thereby have been duly authorized by all necessary action on the part of the Company and no further action is required by the Company, its board of directors or its stockholders in connection therewith other than in connection with the Required Approvals. Each Transaction Document has been (or upon delivery will have been) duly executed by the Company and, when delivered in accordance with the terms hereof and thereof, will constitute the valid and binding obligation of the Company enforceable against the Company in accordance with its terms except (i) as limited by general equitable principles and applicable bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium and other laws of general application affecting enforcement of creditors’ rights generally, (ii) as limited by laws relating to the availability of specific performance, injunctive relief or other equitable remedies and (iii) insofar as indemnification and contribution provisions may be limited by applicable law.
(d) No Conflicts . The execution, delivery and performance of the Transaction Documents by the Company and the consummation by the Company of the other transactions contemplated hereby and thereby do not and will not: (i) conflict with or violate any provision of the Company’s or any Subsidiary’s certificate or articles of incorporation, bylaws or other organizational or charter documents, or (ii) conflict with, or constitute a default (or an event that with notice or lapse of time or both would become a default) under, result in the creation of any Lien, except for Permitted Liens, upon any of the properties or assets of the Company or any Subsidiary, or give to others any rights of termination, amendment, acceleration or cancellation (with or without notice, lapse of time or both) of, any agreement, credit facility, debt or other instrument (evidencing a Company or Subsidiary debt or otherwise) or other understanding to which the Company or any Subsidiary is a party or by which any property or asset of the Company or any Subsidiary is bound or affected, or (iii) subject to the Required Approvals, conflict with or result in a violation of any law, rule, regulation, order, judgment, injunction, decree or other restriction of any court or governmental authority to which the Company or a Subsidiary is subject (including federal and state securities laws and regulations), or by which any property or asset of the Company or a Subsidiary is bound or affected; except in the case of each of clauses (ii) and (iii), such as could not have or reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.
(e) Filings, Consents and Approvals . Except as listed on Schedule 3.1(e) , the Company is not required to obtain any consent, waiver, authorization or order of, give any notice to, or make any filing or registration with, any court or other federal, state, local or other governmental authority or other Person in connection with the execution, delivery and performance by the Company of the Transaction Documents, other than (i)
filings required pursuant to Section 4.6, (ii) the filing with the Commission of the Registration Statement, (iii) the notice and/or application(s) to each applicable Trading Market for the issuance and sale of the Securities and the listing of the Underlying Shares for trading thereon in the time and manner required thereby and (iv) the filing of Form D with the Commission and such filings as are required to be made under applicable state securities laws (collectively, the " Required Approvals ").
(f) Issuance of the Securities . The Securities are duly authorized and, when issued and paid for in accordance with the applicable Transaction Documents, will be duly and validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable, free and clear of all Liens imposed by the Company other than restrictions on transfer provided for in the Transaction Documents. The Underlying Shares, when issued in accordance with the terms of the Transaction Documents, will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable, free and clear of all Liens imposed by the Company. The Company has reserved from its duly authorized capital stock a number of shares of Common Stock for issuance of the Underlying Shares at least equal to the Required Minimum on the date hereof.
(g) Capitalization . The capitalization of the Company is as set forth on Schedule 3.1(g) . The Company has not issued any capital stock since its most recently filed periodic report under the Exchange Act, other than pursuant to the exercise of employee stock options under the Company’s stock option plans, the issuance of shares of Common Stock to employees pursuant to the Company’s employee stock purchase plan and pursuant to the conversion or exercise of Common Stock Equivalents outstanding as of the date of the most recently filed periodic report under the Exchange Act. No Person has any right of first refusal, preemptive right, right of participation, or any similar right to participate in the transactions contemplated by the Transaction Documents. Except as set forth on Schedule 3.1(g) or as a result of the purchase and sale of the Securities, there are no outstanding options, warrants, script rights to subscribe to, calls or commitments of any character whatsoever relating to, or securities, rights or obligations convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for, or giving any Person any right to subscribe for or acquire, any shares of Common Stock, or contracts, commitments, understandings or arrangements by which the Company or any Subsidiary is or may become bound to issue additional shares of Common Stock or Common Stock Equivalents. The issuance and sale of the Securities will not obligate the Company to issue shares of Common Stock or other securities to any Person (other than the Purchasers) and will not result in a right of any holder of Company securities to adjust the exercise, conversion, exchange or reset price under any of such securities. All of the outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company are validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable, have been issued in compliance with all federal and state securities laws, and none of such outstanding shares was issued in violation of any preemptive rights or similar rights to subscribe for or purchase securities. Except as disclosed in Schedule 3.1(g) , no further approval or authorization of any stockholder, the Board of Directors of the Company or others is required for the issuance and sale of the Securities. There are no stockholders agreements, voting agreements or other similar agreements with respect to the Company’s capital stock to which the Company is a party or, to the knowledge of the Company, between or among any of the Company’s stockholders.
(h) SEC Reports; Financial Statements . Except as listed on Schedule 3.1(h), Company has filed all reports, schedules, forms, statements and other documents required to be filed by the Company under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, including pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) thereof, for the two years preceding the date hereof (or such shorter period as the Company was required by law or regulation to file such material) (the foregoing materials, including the exhibits thereto and documents incorporated by reference therein, being collectively referred to herein as the " SEC Reports ") on a timely basis or has received a valid extension of such time of filing and has filed any such SEC Reports prior to the expiration of any such extension. As of their respective dates, the SEC Reports complied in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, as applicable, and none of the SEC Reports, when filed, contained any untrue statement of a material fact or omitted to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The financial statements of the Company included in the SEC Reports comply in all material respects with applicable accounting requirements and the rules and regulations of the Commission with respect thereto as in effect at the time of filing. Such financial statements have been prepared in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles applied on a consistent basis during the periods involved (" GAAP "), except as may be otherwise specified in such financial statements or the notes thereto and except that unaudited financial statements may not contain all footnotes required by GAAP, and fairly present in all material respects the financial position of the Company and its consolidated Subsidiaries as of and for the dates thereof and the results of operations and cash flows for the periods then ended, subject, in the case of unaudited statements, to normal, immaterial, year-end audit adjustments.
(i) Material Changes . Since the date of the latest audited financial statements included within the SEC Reports, except as specifically disclosed in a subsequent SEC Report filed prior to the date hereof, (i) there has been no event, occurrence or development that has had or that could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, (ii) the Company has not incurred any liabilities (contingent or otherwise) other than (A) trade payables and accrued expenses incurred in the ordinary course of business consistent with past practice and (B) liabilities not required to be reflected in the Company’s financial statements pursuant to GAAP or disclosed in filings made with the Commission, (iii) the Company has not altered its method of accounting, (iv) except as set forth on Schedule 3.1(i), the Company has not declared or made any dividend or distribution of cash or other property to its stockholders or purchased, redeemed or made any agreements to purchase or redeem any shares of its capital stock and (v) the Company has not issued any equity securities to any officer, director or Affiliate, except pursuant to existing Company stock option plans. The Company does not have pending before the Commission any request for confidential treatment of information. Except for the issuance of the Securities contemplated by this Agreement or as set forth on Schedule 3.1(i) , no event, liability or development has occurred or exists with respect to the Company or its Subsidiaries or their respective business, properties, operations or financial condition, that would be required to be disclosed by the Company under applicable securities laws at the time this representation is made that has not been
publicly disclosed at least one Trading Day prior to the date that this representation is made.
(j) Litigation . There is no action, suit, inquiry, notice of violation, proceeding or investigation pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened against or affecting the Company, any Subsidiary or any of their respective properties before or by any court, arbitrator, governmental or administrative agency or regulatory authority (federal, state, county, local or foreign) (collectively, an " Action ") which (i) adversely affects or challenges the legality, validity or enforceability of any of the Transaction Documents or the Securities or (ii) could, if there were an unfavorable decision, have or reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary, nor any director or officer thereof, is or has been the subject of any Action involving a claim of violation of or liability under federal or state securities laws or a claim of breach of fiduciary duty. There has not been, and to the knowledge of the Company, there is not pending or contemplated, any investigation by the Commission involving the Company or any current or former director or officer of the Company. The Commission has not issued any stop order or other order suspending the effectiveness of any registration statement filed by the Company or any Subsidiary under the Exchange Act or the Securities Act.
(k) Labor Relations . No material labor dispute exists or, to the knowledge of the Company, is imminent with respect to any of the employees of the Company which could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect. None of the Company’s or its Subsidiaries’ employees is a member of a union that relates to such employee’s relationship with the Company, and neither the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is a party to a collective bargaining agreement, and the Company and its Subsidiaries believe that their relationships with their employees are good. No executive officer, to the knowledge of the Company, is, or is now expected to be, in violation of any material term of any employment contract, confidentiality, disclosure or proprietary information agreement or non-competition agreement, or any other contract or agreement or any restrictive covenant, and the continued employment of each such executive officer does not subject the Company or any of its Subsidiaries to any liability with respect to any of the foregoing matters. The Company and its Subsidiaries are in compliance with all U.S. federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations relating to employment and employment practices, terms and conditions of employment and wages and hours, except where the failure to be in compliance could not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.
(l) Compliance . Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary (i) is in default under or in violation of (and no event has occurred that has not been waived that, with notice or lapse of time or both, would result in a default by the Company or any Subsidiary under), nor has the Company or any Subsidiary received notice of a claim that it is in default under or that it is in violation of, any indenture, loan or credit agreement or any other agreement or instrument to which it is a party or by which it or any of its properties is bound (whether or not such default or violation has been waived), (ii) is in violation of any order of any court, arbitrator or governmental body, or (iii) is or has been
in violation of any statute, rule or regulation of any governmental authority, including without limitation all foreign, federal, state and local laws applicable to its business and all such laws that affect the environment, except in each case as could not have or reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.
(m) Regulatory Permits . The Company and the Subsidiaries possess all certificates, authorizations and permits issued by the appropriate federal, state, local or foreign regulatory authorities necessary to conduct their respective businesses as described in the SEC Reports, except where the failure to possess such permits could not have or reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect (" Material Permits "), and neither the Company nor any Subsidiary has received any notice of proceedings relating to the revocation or modification of any Material Permit.
(n) Title to Assets . The Company and the Subsidiaries have good and marketable title in fee simple to all real property owned by them that is material to the business of the Company and the Subsidiaries and good and marketable title in all personal property owned by them that is material to the business of the Company and the Subsidiaries, in each case free and clear of all Liens, except for Permitted Liens or for Liens as do not materially affect the value of such property and do not materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company and the Subsidiaries and Liens for the payment of federal, state or other taxes, the payment of which is neither delinquent nor subject to penalties. Any real property and facilities held under lease by the Company and the Subsidiaries are held by them under valid, subsisting and enforceable leases with which the Company and the Subsidiaries are in compliance.
(o) Patents and Trademarks . The Company and the Subsidiaries have, or have rights to use, all patents, patent applications, trademarks, trademark applications, service marks, trade names, trade secrets, inventions, copyrights, licenses and other intellectual property rights and similar rights necessary or material for use in connection with their respective businesses as described in the SEC Reports and which the failure to so have could have a Material Adverse Effect (collectively, the " Intellectual Property Rights "). Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary has received a notice (written or otherwise) that the Intellectual Property Rights used by the Company or any Subsidiary violates or infringes upon the rights of any Person. To the knowledge of the Company, all such Intellectual Property Rights are enforceable and there is no existing infringement by another Person of any of the Intellectual Property Rights. The Company and its Subsidiaries have taken reasonable security measures to protect the secrecy, confidentiality and value of all of their intellectual properties, except where failure to do so could not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expect to have a Material Adverse Effect.
(p) Insurance . The Company and the Subsidiaries are insured by insurers of recognized financial responsibility against such losses and risks and in such amounts as are prudent and customary in the businesses in which the Company and the Subsidiaries are engaged, including, but not limited to, directors and officers insurance coverage at
least equal to the aggregate Subscription Amount. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary has any reason to believe that it will not be able to renew its existing insurance coverage as and when such coverage expires or to obtain similar coverage from similar insurers as may be necessary to continue its business without a significant increase in cost.
(q) Transactions With Affiliates and Employees . Except as set forth in the SEC Reports, none of the officers or directors of the Company and, to the knowledge of the Company, none of the employees of the Company is presently a party to any transaction with the Company or any Subsidiary (other than for services as employees, officers and directors), including any contract, agreement or other arrangement providing for the furnishing of services to or by, providing for rental of real or personal property to or from, or otherwise requiring payments to or from any officer, director or such employee or, to the knowledge of the Company, any entity in which any officer, director, or any such employee has a substantial interest or is an officer, director, trustee or partner, in each case in excess of $60,000 other than (i) for payment of salary or consulting fees for services rendered, (ii) reimbursement for expenses incurred on behalf of the Company and (iii) for other employee benefits, including stock option agreements under any stock option plan of the Company.
(r) Sarbanes-Oxley; Internal Accounting Controls . The Company is in material compliance with all provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 which are applicable to it as of the Closing Date. The Company and the Subsidiaries maintain a system of internal accounting controls sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorizations, (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP and to maintain asset accountability, (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization, and (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with the existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences. The Company has established disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e)) for the Company and designed such disclosure controls and procedures to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in the reports it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported, within the time periods specified in the Commission’s rules and forms. The Company’s certifying officers have evaluated the effectiveness of the Company’s disclosure controls and procedures as of the end of the period covered by the Company’s most recently filed periodic report under the Exchange Act (such date, the " Evaluation Date "). The Company presented in its most recently filed periodic report under the Exchange Act the conclusions of the certifying officers about the effectiveness of the disclosure controls and procedures based on their evaluations as of the Evaluation Date. Since the Evaluation Date, there have been no changes in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting (as such term is defined in the Exchange Act) that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.
(s) Certain Fees . Except as set forth on Schedule 3.1(s), no brokerage or finder’s fees or commissions are or will be payable by the Company to any broker, financial advisor or consultant, finder, placement agent, investment banker, bank or other Person with respect to the transactions contemplated by the Transaction Documents. The Purchasers shall have no obligation with respect to any fees or with respect to any claims made by or on behalf of other Persons for fees of a type contemplated in this Section that may be due in connection with the transactions contemplated by the Transaction Documents.
(t) Private Placement . Assuming the accuracy of the Purchasers’ representations and warranties set forth in Section 3.2, no registration under the Securities Act is required for the offer and sale of the Securities by the Company to the Purchasers as contemplated hereby. The issuance and sale of the Securities hereunder does not contravene the rules and regulations of the Trading Market.
(u) Investment Company . The Company is not, and is not an Affiliate of, and immediately after receipt of payment for the Securities, will not be or be an Affiliate of, an "investment company" within the meaning of the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended. The Company shall conduct its business in a manner so that it will not become subject to the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended.
(v) Registration Rights . Other than each of the Purchasers and as disclosed on Schedule 3.1 (v) , , no Person has any right to cause the Company to effect the registration under the Securities Act of any securities of the Company.
(w) Listing and Maintenance Requirements . The Company’s Common Stock is registered pursuant to Section 12(b) or 12(g) of the Exchange Act, and the Company has taken no action designed to, or which to its knowledge is likely to have the effect of, terminating the registration of the Common Stock under the Exchange Act nor has the Company received any notification that the Commission is contemplating terminating such registration. The Company has not, in the 12 months preceding the date hereof, received notice from any Trading Market on which the Common Stock is or has been listed or quoted to the effect that the Company is not in compliance with the listing or maintenance requirements of such Trading Market. The Company is, and has no reason to believe that it will not in the foreseeable future continue to be, in compliance with all such listing and maintenance requirements.
(x) Application of Takeover Protections . The Company and its Board of Directors have taken all necessary action, if any, in order to render inapplicable any control share acquisition, business combination, poison pill (including any distribution under a rights agreement) or other similar anti-takeover provision under the Company’s Certificate of Incorporation (or similar charter documents) or the laws of its state of incorporation that is or could become applicable to the Purchasers as a result of the Purchasers and the Company fulfilling their obligations or exercising their rights under the Transaction Documents, including without limitation as a result of the Compa